Central cord syndrome
|Central Cord Syndrome|
|Central cord syndrome is top diagram|
Central cord syndrome (CCS) is an acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), characterized by disproportionately greater motor impairment in upper compared to lower extremities, bladder dysfunction, and variable degree of sensory loss below the level of injury. This syndrome is unlike a complete lesion, that causes loss of all sensation and movement below the level of the injury. First described by Schneider in 1954, CCS has been reported to occur more frequently among older persons with cervical spondylosis who sustain hyperextension injury. Though it also may occur in persons of any age. CCS is the most common incomplete SCI syndrome.
CCS most often occurs after hyperextension injury in an individual with long-standing cervical spondylosis. Historically, spinal cord damage was believed to originate from concussion or contusion of the cord with stasis of axoplasmic flow, causing edematous injury rather than destructive hematomyelia. More recently, autopsy studies have demonstrated that CCS may be caused by bleeding into the central part of the cord, portending less favorable prognosis. Studies also have shown that CCS probably is associated with axonal disruption in the lateral columns at the level of the injury to the spinal cord with relative preservation of the grey matter.
In the US the prevalence rate is 15.7-25% however this syndrome is generally associated with favorable prognosis for some degree of neurologic and functional recovery. CCS predominantly affects men more than women, similar to all other SCI.