Candida vulvovaginitis risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Dima Nimri, M.D. [2], Aravind Kuchkuntla, M.B.B.S[3]


Some of the risk factors associated with the development of Candida vulvovaginitis include diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression and recent antibiotic use.

Risk Factors

The following risk factors have been implicated in predisposing patients to Candida vulvovaginitis:

Risk Factors for Recurrent Candida Vulvovaginitis[9]

Microbial Factors Genetic Factors Host Behavioural Factors Other Risk Factors
  • Lewis blood group non-secretor status
  • African American race
  • Familial history of recurrent Candida vulvovaginitis

Table adopted from Vulvovaginal candidiasis Lancet 2007; 369: 1961–71[11]


  1. Foxman B (1990). "The epidemiology of vulvovaginal candidiasis: risk factors". Am J Public Health. 80 (3): 329–31. PMC 1404680. PMID 2305918.
  2. Eckert LO, Hawes SE, Stevens CE, Koutsky LA, Eschenbach DA, Holmes KK (1998). "Vulvovaginal candidiasis: clinical manifestations, risk factors, management algorithm". Obstet Gynecol. 92 (5): 757–65. PMID 9794664.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Eckert LO (2006). "Clinical practice. Acute vulvovaginitis". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (12): 1244–52. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp053720. PMID 16990387.
  4. Wilton L, Kollarova M, Heeley E, Shakir S (2003). "Relative risk of vaginal candidiasis after use of antibiotics compared with antidepressants in women: postmarketing surveillance data in England". Drug Saf. 26 (8): 589–97. PMID 12825971.
  5. de Leon EM, Jacober SJ, Sobel JD, Foxman B (2002). "Prevalence and risk factors for vaginal Candida colonization in women with type 1 and type 2 diabetes". BMC Infect. Dis. 2: 1. PMC 65518. PMID 11835694.
  6. Donders GG (2002). "Lower Genital Tract Infections in Diabetic Women". Curr Infect Dis Rep. 4 (6): 536–539. PMID 12433331.
  7. Duerr A, Heilig CM, Meikle SF, Cu-Uvin S, Klein RS, Rompalo A, Sobel JD (2003). "Incident and persistent vulvovaginal candidiasis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: Risk factors and severity". Obstet Gynecol. 101 (3): 548–56. PMID 12636961.
  8. Eckert LO, Hawes SE, Stevens CE, Koutsky LA, Eschenbach DA, Holmes KK (1998). "Vulvovaginal candidiasis: clinical manifestations, risk factors, management algorithm". Obstet Gynecol. 92 (5): 757–65. PMID 9794664.
  9. Sobel JD (2016). "Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 214 (1): 15–21. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2015.06.067. PMID 26164695.
  10. Reed BD, Zazove P, Pierson CL, Gorenflo DW, Horrocks J (2003). "Candida transmission and sexual behaviors as risks for a repeat episode of Candida vulvovaginitis". J Womens Health (Larchmt). 12 (10): 979–89. doi:10.1089/154099903322643901. PMID 14709186.
  11. Sobel JD (2007). "Vulvovaginal candidosis". Lancet. 369 (9577): 1961–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60917-9. PMID 17560449.

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