Candida vulvovaginitis causes

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Candida vulvovaginitis Microchapters


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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Dima Nimri, M.D. [2], Aravind Kuchkuntla, M.B.B.S[3]


Candida vulvovaginitis is caused by many different species of Candida. They are divided into Candida albicans and Candida non-albicans species based on the causative pathogen.


Common Causes

Less Common Causes

These are less commonly isolated in patients but is important to identify the species as they are less sensitive to standard azole therapy and cause recurrent infection.[3][4]


  1. Corsello S, Spinillo A, Osnengo G, Penna C, Guaschino S, Beltrame A; et al. (2003). "An epidemiological survey of vulvovaginal candidiasis in Italy". Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 110 (1): 66–72. PMID 12932875.
  2. Okungbowa FI, Isikhuemhen OS, Dede AP (2003). "The distribution frequency of Candida species in the genitourinary tract among symptomatic individuals in Nigerian cities". Rev Iberoam Micol. 20 (2): 60–3. PMID 15456373.
  3. Bauters TG, Dhont MA, Temmerman MI, Nelis HJ (2002). "Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis and susceptibility to fluconazole in women". Am J Obstet Gynecol. 187 (3): 569–74. PMID 12237629.
  4. Holland J, Young ML, Lee O, C-A Chen S (2003). "Vulvovaginal carriage of yeasts other than Candida albicans". Sex Transm Infect. 79 (3): 249–50. PMC 1744683. PMID 12794215.
  5. Nyirjesy P, Alexander AB, Weitz MV (2005). "Vaginal Candida parapsilosis: pathogen or bystander?". Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 13 (1): 37–41. doi:10.1080/10647440400025603. PMC 1784559. PMID 16040326.
  6. Singh S, Sobel JD, Bhargava P, Boikov D, Vazquez JA (2002). "Vaginitis due to Candida krusei: epidemiology, clinical aspects, and therapy". Clin Infect Dis. 35 (9): 1066–70. doi:10.1086/343826. PMID 12384840.