Boerhaave syndrome risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mohamed Diab, MD [2], Ajay Gade MD[3]], Feham Tariq, MD [4] Shaghayegh Habibi, M.D.[5]


Boerhaave syndrome (BHS) usually occurs in patients with a normal underlying esophagus. The most potent risk factors in the development of Boerhaave syndrome is overindulgence in food and alcohol and sometimes iatrogenic. Other risk factors include Eosinophilic esophagitis, medication-induced esophagitis, and Infectious ulcers.

Risk Factors

The risk factors of BHS is as follows:[1][2][3][4][5][6]

Common Risk Factors:

Less Common Risk Factors:


  1. Pate JW, Walker WA, Cole FH, Owen EW, Johnson WH (1989). "Spontaneous rupture of the esophagus: a 30-year experience". Ann. Thorac. Surg. 47 (5): 689–92. PMID 2730190.
  2. Tullavardhana T (2015). "Iatrogenic Esophageal Perforation". J Med Assoc Thai. 98 Suppl 9: S177–83. PMID 26817229.
  3. Chirica M, Champault A, Dray X, Sulpice L, Munoz-Bongrand N, Sarfati E, Cattan P (2010). "Esophageal perforations". J Visc Surg. 147 (3): e117–28. doi:10.1016/j.jviscsurg.2010.08.003. PMID 20833121.
  4. Monu NC, Murphy BL (2013). "Intramural esophageal dissection associated with esophageal perforation". R I Med J (2013). 96 (7): 44–6. PMID 23819141.
  5. Aronberg RM, Punekar SR, Adam SI, Judson BL, Mehra S, Yarbrough WG (2015). "Esophageal perforation caused by edible foreign bodies: a systematic review of the literature". Laryngoscope. 125 (2): 371–8. doi:10.1002/lary.24899. PMID 25155167.
  6. Wu HC, Hsia JY, Hsu CP (2008). "Esophageal laceration with intramural dissection mimics esophageal perforation". Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 7 (5): 864–5. doi:10.1510/icvts.2008.181560. PMID 18641013.

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