Blau syndrome

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sahar Memar Montazerin, M.D.[2]
Synonyms and Keywords: Pediatric Granulomatous Arthritis (PGA), Juvenile Systemic Granulomatosis, Early Onset Sarcoidosis, Jabs Syndrome, NOD2-associated disease-Blau

Coarse facial features in a boy with Blau syndrome, Image courtesy of Donald A Glass II MD, PhD, Jennifer Maender MD, Denise Metry M

Overview

Blau syndrome is characterized by the triad of early-onset symmetric polyarticular synovitis, skin rash, and eye involvement with recurrent anterior uveitis.

Historical Perspective

Classification

  • There is no established system for the classification of Blau syndrome.

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Blau syndrome from Other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

  • The prevalence of Blau syndrome has been reported less than 0.1 per 100,000 individuals worldwide.[5]
  • Blau syndrome commonly affects individuals younger than 4 years of age.
  • There is no racial predilection to Blau syndrome.
  • Blau syndrome affects men and women equally.

Risk Factors

Screening

  • There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine screening for Blau syndrome.

Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Study of Choice

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Multiple, reddish-brown papules coalescing over the right arm in a boy with Blau syndrome, Image courtesy of Donald A Glass II MD, PhD, Jennifer Maender MD, Denise Metry M

Laboratory Findings

Electrocardiogram

X-ray

Echocardiography or Ultrasound

CT scan

MRI

  • There are no MRI findings associated with Blau syndrome.

Other Imaging Findings

  • There are no other imaging findings associated with Blau syndrome.

Other Diagnostic Studies

  • There are no other diagnostic studies associated with Blau syndrome.

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

  • Surgical intervention is not recommended for the management of Blau syndrome.

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

References

  1. Blau, Edward B. (1985). "Familial granulomatous arthritis, iritis, and rash". The Journal of Pediatrics. 107 (5): 689–693. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(85)80394-2. ISSN 0022-3476.
  2. Jabs, Douglas A.; Houk, J.Lawrence; Bias, Wilma B.; Arnett, Frank C. (1985). "Familial granulomatous synovitis, uveitis, and cranial neuropathies". The American Journal of Medicine. 78 (5): 801–804. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(85)90286-4. ISSN 0002-9343.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Lesage, Suzanne; Rybojad, Michel; Prieur, Anne-Marie; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie; Häfner, Renate; Chamaillard, Mathias; Zouali, Habib; Thomas, Gilles; Hugot, Jean-Pierre (2001). "CARD15 mutations in Blau syndrome". Nature Genetics. 29 (1): 19–20. doi:10.1038/ng720. ISSN 1061-4036.
  4. Ogura, Yasunori; Inohara, Naohiro; Benito, Adalberto; Chen, Felicia F.; Yamaoka, Shoji; Núñez, Gabriel (2001). "Nod2, a Nod1/Apaf-1 Family Member That Is Restricted to Monocytes and Activates NF-κB". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (7): 4812–4818. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008072200. ISSN 0021-9258.
  5. Yi Yong, Cee; Mukhtyar, Chetan; Armon, Kate (2018). "65. Blau syndrome treated with sequential biologics". Rheumatology Advances in Practice. 2 (suppl_1). doi:10.1093/rap/rky034.028. ISSN 2514-1775.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Rosé, Carlos D.; Aróstegui, Juan I.; Martin, Tammy M.; Espada, Graciela; Scalzi, Lisabeth; Yagüe, Jordi; Rosenbaum, James T.; Modesto, Consuelo; Cristina Arnal, Maria; Merino, Rosa; García-Consuegra, Julia; Carballo Silva, María Antonia; Wouters, Carine H. (2009). "NOD2-Associated pediatric granulomatous arthritis, an expanding phenotype: Study of an international registry and a national cohort in spain". Arthritis & Rheumatism. 60 (6): 1797–1803. doi:10.1002/art.24533. ISSN 0004-3591.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Glass DA, Maender J, Metry D (December 2009). "Two pediatric cases of Blau syndrome". Dermatol. Online J. 15 (12): 5. PMID 20040255.
  8. Khubchandani, Raju P.; Hasija, Rachana; Touitou, Isabelle; Khemani, Chetna; Wouters, Carine H.; Rose, Carlos D. (2012). "Blau Arteritis Resembling Takayasu Disease with a Novel NOD2 Mutation". The Journal of Rheumatology. 39 (9): 1888–1892. doi:10.3899/jrheum.120156. ISSN 0315-162X.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Ikeda, Kei; Kambe, Naotomo; Takei, Syuji; Nakano, Taiji; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Tomiita, Minako; Oyake, Natsuko; Satoh, Takashi; Yamatou, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Tomohiro; Okafuji, Ikuo; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Shimojo, Naoki; Matsue, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Hiroshi (2014). "Ultrasonographic assessment reveals detailed distribution of synovial inflammation in Blau syndrome". Arthritis Research & Therapy. 16 (2): R89. doi:10.1186/ar4533. ISSN 1478-6354.
  10. Imayoshi, Miyoko; Ogata, Yoshiyasu; Yamamoto, Shuichi (2018). "A Case of Sporadic Blau Syndrome with an Uncommon Clinical Course". Case Reports in Rheumatology. 2018: 1–5. doi:10.1155/2018/6292308. ISSN 2090-6889.
  11. Rose, C. D.; Pans, S.; Casteels, I.; Anton, J.; Bader-Meunier, B.; Brissaud, P.; Cimaz, R.; Espada, G.; Fernandez-Martin, J.; Hachulla, E.; Harjacek, M.; Khubchandani, R.; Mackensen, F.; Merino, R.; Naranjo, A.; Oliveira-Knupp, S.; Pajot, C.; Russo, R.; Thomee, C.; Vastert, S.; Wulffraat, N.; Arostegui, J. I.; Foley, K. P.; Bertin, J.; Wouters, C. H. (2014). "Blau syndrome: cross-sectional data from a multicentre study of clinical, radiological and functional outcomes". Rheumatology. 54 (6): 1008–1016. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keu437. ISSN 1462-0324.
  12. DeSouza, Philip J.; Shah, Rajiv (2019). "Characterization of Blau syndrome panuveitis with wide-field fluorescein angiography". American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports. 14: 92–94. doi:10.1016/j.ajoc.2019.03.006. ISSN 2451-9936.
  13. Rose, Carlos D.; Martin, Tammy M.; Wouters, Carine H. (2011). "Blau syndrome revisited". Current Opinion in Rheumatology. 23 (5): 411–418. doi:10.1097/BOR.0b013e328349c430. ISSN 1040-8711.

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