WikiDoc Resources for Blau syndrome
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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sahar Memar Montazerin, M.D.
Synonyms and Keywords: Pediatric Granulomatous Arthritis (PGA), Juvenile Systemic Granulomatosis, Early Onset Sarcoidosis, Jabs Syndrome, NOD2-associated disease-Blau
- Blau syndrome was first discovered by Dr. Edward B. Blau, in 1985 following observation of a four-generation family with a variety of symptoms including granulomatous arthritis, iritis, and skin rash.
- Jabs Syndrome was introduced in the same year (1985) by Dr. A. Douglas Jabs following visiting patients with polyarthritis, uveitis, and cranial neuropathy.
- In 2001, NOD2 mutations were first implicated in the pathogenesis of Blau syndrome.
- There is no established system for the classification of Blau syndrome.
- The exact pathogenesis of Blau syndrome is not fully understood. However, it is caused by a NATCH domain of the NOD2 / CARD15 gene.
- The disease is inherited in an autosomal dominant mode.
- This gene encodes a protein involving in the immune system.
- NOD2 mutation leads to over activation of NF-kB which may explain an exaggerated inflammatory response observed in these patients.
Differentiating Blau syndrome from Other Diseases
- Blau syndrome must be differentiated from other diseases that cause arthritis, skin rash, and ophthalmological involvement, such as Neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), and familial mediterranean fever.
- For more information on the differential diagnosis of Blau syndrome please click here.
Epidemiology and Demographics
- The prevalence of Blau syndrome has been reported less than 0.1 per 100,000 individuals worldwide.
- Blau syndrome commonly affects individuals younger than 4 years of age.
- There is no racial predilection to Blau syndrome.
- Blau syndrome affects men and women equally.
- There are no established risk factors for Blau syndrome.
- There is insufficient evidence to recommend routine screening for Blau syndrome.
Natural History, Complications, and Prognosis
- If left untreated, patients with Blau syndrome may progress to develop blindness, vasculitis, and joint deformities.
- Other possible complications include arterial hypertension, pulmonary embolism, and arthritis.
- Prognosis is generally poor if left untreated.
Diagnostic Study of Choice
- There are no established criteria for the diagnosis of Blau syndrome. However, it usually manifests with a triad consist of symmetric early-onset of polyarticular synovitis, skin rash, and eye involvement with recurrent anterior uveitis.
- It is notable that some patients may present with signs/symptoms other than the aforementioned, which make the clinical diagnosis more challenging. Therefore, the genetic analysis is the diagnostic study of choice for Blau syndrome.
History and Symptoms
- Blau syndrome first presents with a scaly rash often by 4 months of age. Fever, arthritis, abdominal pain, and other symptoms may present later by 4 years of age.
- Rash spread follows a cephalocaudal order. It first appears on the face and then affects the trunk.
- Arthritis usually affects wrists, knees, and ankles and tends to be symmetrical and chronic.
- Common physical examination findings of Blau syndrome include fever, scaly rash, and arthritis.
- Other possible findings include cranial nerve involvement, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, uveitis, conjunctivitis, cataracts, and panniculitis
- Common laboratory findings of Blau syndrome include elevated acute phase reactant levels, hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria, elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) level, elevated immunoglobulins, leukopenia and eosinophilia, hematuria, proteinuria, pyuria, and Abnormal liver function tests.
- There are no ECG findings associated with Blau syndrome. However, pericarditis may be one of the possible complication of Blau syndrome.
- For more information on ECG finding of pericarditis please click here
- There are no x-ray findings associated with Blau syndrome. However, an x-ray may be helpful in the evaluation of arthritis associated with Blau syndrome, which may indicate findings such as camptodactyly (flexion contracture in PIP joints), carpal dysplasia with carpal crowding (changes in shape and position affecting bones in the proximal carpal row), abnormal distal radial epiphysis with a biconcave articular surface (prominent bony ridge is in contact with the scapholunate joint), abnormal shape of the distal ulna (plump ulna) as well as a short ulna, and/or abnormal shape of the second metacarpal bone (long small diaphysis).
Echocardiography or Ultrasound
- There are no echocardiography findings associated with Blau syndrome. However, pericarditis may be one of the possible complication of Blau syndrome.
- For more information on echocardiography finding of pericarditis please click here
- CT scan findings may be helpful in the diagnosis of conditions associated with Blau syndrome. It may indicate findings associated with pneumonitis such as:
- There are no MRI findings associated with Blau syndrome.
Other Imaging Findings
- There are no other imaging findings associated with Blau syndrome.
Other Diagnostic Studies
- There are no other diagnostic studies associated with Blau syndrome.
- There is no treatment for Blau syndrome; the mainstay of therapy is supportive care.
- Treatment options for mild clinical phenotype include:
- Treatment options for severe clinical phenotype include:
- Surgical intervention is not recommended for the management of Blau syndrome.
- There are no established measures for the primary prevention of Blau syndrome.
- There are no established measures for the secondary prevention of Blau syndrome.
- Blau, Edward B. (1985). "Familial granulomatous arthritis, iritis, and rash". The Journal of Pediatrics. 107 (5): 689–693. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(85)80394-2. ISSN 0022-3476.
- Jabs, Douglas A.; Houk, J.Lawrence; Bias, Wilma B.; Arnett, Frank C. (1985). "Familial granulomatous synovitis, uveitis, and cranial neuropathies". The American Journal of Medicine. 78 (5): 801–804. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(85)90286-4. ISSN 0002-9343.
- Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Lesage, Suzanne; Rybojad, Michel; Prieur, Anne-Marie; Manouvrier-Hanu, Sylvie; Häfner, Renate; Chamaillard, Mathias; Zouali, Habib; Thomas, Gilles; Hugot, Jean-Pierre (2001). "CARD15 mutations in Blau syndrome". Nature Genetics. 29 (1): 19–20. doi:10.1038/ng720. ISSN 1061-4036.
- Ogura, Yasunori; Inohara, Naohiro; Benito, Adalberto; Chen, Felicia F.; Yamaoka, Shoji; Núñez, Gabriel (2001). "Nod2, a Nod1/Apaf-1 Family Member That Is Restricted to Monocytes and Activates NF-κB". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (7): 4812–4818. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008072200. ISSN 0021-9258.
- Yi Yong, Cee; Mukhtyar, Chetan; Armon, Kate (2018). "65. Blau syndrome treated with sequential biologics". Rheumatology Advances in Practice. 2 (suppl_1). doi:10.1093/rap/rky034.028. ISSN 2514-1775.
- Rosé, Carlos D.; Aróstegui, Juan I.; Martin, Tammy M.; Espada, Graciela; Scalzi, Lisabeth; Yagüe, Jordi; Rosenbaum, James T.; Modesto, Consuelo; Cristina Arnal, Maria; Merino, Rosa; García-Consuegra, Julia; Carballo Silva, María Antonia; Wouters, Carine H. (2009). "NOD2-Associated pediatric granulomatous arthritis, an expanding phenotype: Study of an international registry and a national cohort in spain". Arthritis & Rheumatism. 60 (6): 1797–1803. doi:10.1002/art.24533. ISSN 0004-3591.
- Glass DA, Maender J, Metry D (December 2009). "Two pediatric cases of Blau syndrome". Dermatol. Online J. 15 (12): 5. PMID 20040255.
- Khubchandani, Raju P.; Hasija, Rachana; Touitou, Isabelle; Khemani, Chetna; Wouters, Carine H.; Rose, Carlos D. (2012). "Blau Arteritis Resembling Takayasu Disease with a Novel NOD2 Mutation". The Journal of Rheumatology. 39 (9): 1888–1892. doi:10.3899/jrheum.120156. ISSN 0315-162X.
- Ikeda, Kei; Kambe, Naotomo; Takei, Syuji; Nakano, Taiji; Inoue, Yuzaburo; Tomiita, Minako; Oyake, Natsuko; Satoh, Takashi; Yamatou, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Tomohiro; Okafuji, Ikuo; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Shimojo, Naoki; Matsue, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Hiroshi (2014). "Ultrasonographic assessment reveals detailed distribution of synovial inflammation in Blau syndrome". Arthritis Research & Therapy. 16 (2): R89. doi:10.1186/ar4533. ISSN 1478-6354.
- Imayoshi, Miyoko; Ogata, Yoshiyasu; Yamamoto, Shuichi (2018). "A Case of Sporadic Blau Syndrome with an Uncommon Clinical Course". Case Reports in Rheumatology. 2018: 1–5. doi:10.1155/2018/6292308. ISSN 2090-6889.
- Rose, C. D.; Pans, S.; Casteels, I.; Anton, J.; Bader-Meunier, B.; Brissaud, P.; Cimaz, R.; Espada, G.; Fernandez-Martin, J.; Hachulla, E.; Harjacek, M.; Khubchandani, R.; Mackensen, F.; Merino, R.; Naranjo, A.; Oliveira-Knupp, S.; Pajot, C.; Russo, R.; Thomee, C.; Vastert, S.; Wulffraat, N.; Arostegui, J. I.; Foley, K. P.; Bertin, J.; Wouters, C. H. (2014). "Blau syndrome: cross-sectional data from a multicentre study of clinical, radiological and functional outcomes". Rheumatology. 54 (6): 1008–1016. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keu437. ISSN 1462-0324.
- DeSouza, Philip J.; Shah, Rajiv (2019). "Characterization of Blau syndrome panuveitis with wide-field fluorescein angiography". American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports. 14: 92–94. doi:10.1016/j.ajoc.2019.03.006. ISSN 2451-9936.
- Rose, Carlos D.; Martin, Tammy M.; Wouters, Carine H. (2011). "Blau syndrome revisited". Current Opinion in Rheumatology. 23 (5): 411–418. doi:10.1097/BOR.0b013e328349c430. ISSN 1040-8711.