Azelaic acid

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Azelaic acid
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vignesh Ponnusamy, M.B.B.S. [2]

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Overview

Azelaic acid is an antiacne antibacterial that is FDA approved for the {{{indicationType}}} of mild to moderate rosacea. Common adverse reactions include pruritus, stinging of skin, burning sensation, and tingling sensation.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Mild to Moderate Rosacea
  • FINACEA Gel, 15%, is indicated for topical treatment of inflammatory papules and pustules of mild to moderate rosacea. Although some reduction of erythema which was present in patients with papules and pustules of rosacea occurred in clinical studies, efficacy for treatment of erythema in rosacea in the absence of papules and pustules has not been evaluated. Patients should be instructed to avoid spicy foods, thermally hot foods and drinks, alcoholic beverages and to use only very mild soaps or soapless cleansing lotion for facial cleansing.
  • A thin layer of FINACEA Gel, 15%, should be gently massaged into the affected areas on the face twice daily, in the morning and evening. Patients should be reassessed if no improvement is observed upon completing 12 weeks of therapy.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Azelaic acid in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

Chloasma
  • Dosing Information
  • Topical AZELAIC ACID 20% cream, applied twice daily.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

There is limited information regarding FDA-Labeled Use of Azelaic acid in pediatric patients.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Azelaic acid in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Azelaic acid in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

  • FINACEA Gel, 15%, is contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to propylene glycol or any other component of the formulation.

Warnings

  • There have been isolated reports of hypopigmentation after use of azelaic acid. Since azelaic acid has not been well studied in patients with dark complexion, these patients should be monitored for early signs of hypopigmentation.

Precautions

  • General:
  • Contact with the eyes should be avoided. If sensitivity or severe irritation develops with the use of FINACEA Gel, 15%, treatment should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.
  • In a transgenic mouse study, chronic use of FINACEA Gel led to an increased number of animals with papillomas at the treatment site.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • Overall, treatment related adverse events, including burning, stinging/tingling, dryness/tightness/scaling, itching, and erythema/irritation/redness, were 19.4% (24/124) for FINACEA Gel, 15%, and 7.1% (9/127) for the active comparator gel at 15 weeks.
  • In two vehicle controlled, and one active controlled U.S. clinical studies, treatment safety was monitored in 788 patients who used twice daily FINACEA Gel, 15%, for 12 weeks (N=333) or for 15 weeks (N=124), or the gel vehicle (N=331) for 12 weeks.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • FINACEA Gel, 15%, and its vehicle caused irritant reactions at the application site in human dermal safety studies. FINACEA Gel, 15%, caused significantly more irritation than its vehicle in a cumulative irritation study. Some improvement in irritation was demonstrated over the course of the clinical studies, but this improvement might be attributed to subject dropouts. No phototoxicity or photoallergenicity were reported in human dermal safety studies.

Postmarketing Experience

  • Post-marketing safety-Skin: facial burning and irritation; Eyes: iridocyclitis on accidental exposure with FINACEA Gel, 15%, to the eye.

Drug Interactions

  • There have been no formal studies of the interaction of FINACEA Gel, 15%, with other drugs.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA):

  • Pregnancy Category B
  • There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of topically administered azelaic acid in pregnant women. The experience with FINACEA Gel, 15%, when used by pregnant women is too limited to permit assessment of the safety of its use during pregnancy.
  • Dermal embryofetal developmental toxicology studies have not been performed with azelaic acid, 15%, gel. Oral embryofetal developmental studies were conducted with azelaic acid in rats, rabbits, and cynomolgus monkeys. Azelaic acid was administered during the period of organogenesis in all three animal species. Embryotoxicity was observed in rats, rabbits, and monkeys at oral doses of azelaic acid that generated some maternal toxicity. Embryotoxicity was observed in rats given 2500 mg/kg/day (162 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area), rabbits given 150 or 500 mg/kg/day (19 or 65 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) and cynomolgus monkeys given 500 mg/kg/day (65 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) azelaic acid. No teratogenic effects were observed in the oral embryofetal developmental studies conducted in rats, rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys.
  • An oral peri- and post-natal developmental study was conducted in rats. Azelaic acid was administered from gestational day 15 through day 21 postpartum up to a dose level of 2500 mg/kg/day. Embryotoxicity was observed in rats at an oral dose that generated some maternal toxicity (2500 mg/kg/day; 162 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area). In addition, slight disturbances in the postnatal development of fetuses was noted in rats at oral doses that generated some maternal toxicity (500 and 2500 mg/kg/day; 32 and 162 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area). No effects on sexual maturation of the fetuses were noted in this study.
  • Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used only if clearly needed during pregnancy.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Azelaic acid in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Azelaic acid during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • Equilibrium dialysis was used to assess human milk partitioning in vitro. At an azelaic acid concentration of 25 μg/mL, the milk/ plasma distribution coefficient was 0.7 and the milk/buffer distribution was 1.0, indicating that passage of drug into maternal milk may occur. Since less than 4% of a topically applied dose of azelaic acid cream, 20%, is systemically absorbed, the uptake of azelaic acid into maternal milk is not expected to cause a significant change from baseline azelaic acid levels in the milk. However, caution should be exercised when FINACEA Gel, 15%, is administered to a nursing mother.

Pediatric Use

  • Safety and effectiveness of FINACEA Gel, 15%, in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatic Use

  • Clinical studies of FINACEA Gel, 15%, did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Azelaic acid with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Azelaic acid with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Azelaic acid in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Azelaic acid in patients with hepatic impairment.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Azelaic acid in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Azelaic acid in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Topical

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Azelaic acid in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Azelaic acid in the drug label.

Overdosage

Acute Overdose

Signs and Symptoms

  • FINACEA Gel, 15%, is intended for cutaneous use only. If pronounced local irritation occurs, patients should be directed to discontinue use and appropriate therapy should be instituted.

Chronic Overdose

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Azelaic acid in the drug label.

Pharmacology

Chemical structure of Azelaic acid
Azelaic acid
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Mechanism of Action

  • The mechanism(s) by which azelaic acid interferes with the pathogenic events in rosacea are unknown.

Structure

  • FINACEA® (azelaic acid) Gel, 15%, contains azelaic acid, a naturally occurring saturated dicarboxylic acid. Chemically, azelaic acid is 1,7-heptanedicarboxylic acid, with the molecular formula C9 H16 O4, a molecular weight of 188.22, and the structural formula:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Azelaic acid is a white, odorless crystalline solid that is poorly soluble in water at 20°C (0.24%), but freely soluble in boiling water and in ethanol.
  • Each gram of FINACEA Gel, 15%, contains 0.15 gm azelaic acid (15% w/w) as the active ingredient in an aqueous gel base containing benzoic acid (as a preservative), disodium EDTA, lecithin, medium-chain triglycerides, polyacrylic acid, polysorbate 80, propylene glycol, purified water, and sodium hydroxide to adjust pH.

Pharmacodynamics

There is limited information regarding Pharmacodynamics of Azelaic acid in the drug label.

Pharmacokinetics

  • The percutaneous absorption of azelaic acid after topical application of FINACEA Gel, 15%, could not be reliably determined. Mean plasma azelaic acid concentrations in rosacea patients treated with FINACEA Gel, 15%, twice daily for at least 8 weeks are in the range of 42 to 63.1 ng/mL. These values are within the maximum concentration range of 24.0 to 90.5 ng/mL observed in rosacea patients treated with vehicle only. This indicates that FINACEA Gel, 15%, does not increase plasma azelaic acid concentration beyond the range derived from nutrition and endogenous metabolism.
  • In vitro and human data suggest negligible cutaneous metabolism of 3H-azelaic acid 20% cream after topical application. Azelaic acid is mainly excreted unchanged in the urine, but undergoes some ß-oxidation to shorter chain dicarboxylic acids.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
  • Systemic long-term animal studies have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of azelaic acid. In a 26-week dermal carcinogenicity study using transgenic (Tg.AC) mice, FINACEA Gel, 15%, and the gel vehicle, when applied once or twice daily, did not increase the number of female Tg.AC animals with papillomas at the treatment site. No statistically significant increase in the number of animals with papillomas at the treatment site was observed in male Tg.AC animals after once daily application. After twice daily application, FINACEA Gel, 15%, and the gel vehicle induced a statistically significant increase in the number of male animals with papillomas at the treatment site when compared to untreated males. This suggests that the positive effect may be associated with the vehicle application. The clinical relevance of the findings in animals to humans is not clear.
  • Azelaic acid was not mutagenic or clastogenic in a battery of in vitro (Ames assay, HGPRT in V79 cells {Chinese hamster lung cells}, and chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes) and in vivo (dominant lethal assay in mice and mouse micronucleus assay) genotoxicity tests.
  • Oral administration of azelaic acid at dose levels up to 2500 mg/kg/day (162 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) did not affect fertility or reproductive performance in male or female rats.

Clinical Studies

  • FINACEA Gel, 15%, was evaluated for the treatment of mild to moderate papulopustular rosacea in 2 clinical trials comprising a total of 664 (333 active to 331 vehicle) patients. Both trials were multicenter, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled 12-week studies with identical protocols. Overall, 92.5% of patients were Caucasian and 73% of patients were women, and the mean age was 49 (range 21 to 86) years. Enrolled patients had mild to moderate rosacea with a mean lesion count of 18 (range 8 to 60) inflammatory papules and pustules. Subjects without papules and pustules, with nodules, rhinophyma, or ocular involvement, and a history of hypersensitivity to propylene glycol or to any other ingredients of the study drug were excluded. FINACEA Gel, 15%, or its vehicle were to be applied twice daily for 12 weeks; no other topical or systemic medication affecting the course of rosacea and/or evaluability was to be used during the studies. Patients were instructed to avoid spicy foods, thermally hot foods and drinks, and alcoholic beverages during the study, and to use only very mild soaps or soapless cleansing lotion for facial cleansing.
  • The primary efficacy endpoints were both
  • change from baseline in inflammatory lesion counts and
  • success defined as a score of clear or minimal with at least a 2 step reduction from baseline on the Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA):
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary efficacy assessment was based on the intent-to-treat (ITT) population with last observation carried forward (LOCF).
  • Both studies demonstrated a statistically significant difference in favor of FINACEA Gel, 15%, over its vehicle in reducing the number of inflammatory papules and pustules associated with rosacea (Table 1) and with success on the IGA in the ITT-LOCF population at the end of treatment.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Although some reduction of erythema which was present in patients with papules and pustules of rosacea occurred in clinical studies, efficacy for treatment of erythema in rosacea in the absence of papules and pustules has not been evaluated.
  • FINACEA Gel, 15%, was superior to the vehicle with regard to success based on the investigator's global assessment of rosacea on a 7-point static score at the end of treatment, (ITT population; Table 2).
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

How Supplied

  • FINACEA Gel, 15%, is supplied in tubes in the following size:
  • FINACEA Gel, 15% – 50 g tube – NDC 10922-825-02
  • Storage
  • Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted between 15–30°C (59–86°F).

Storage

There is limited information regarding Azelaic acid Storage in the drug label.

Images

Drug Images

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Package and Label Display Panel

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This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
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This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
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This image of the FDA label is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Patient Counseling Information

  • Patients using FINACEA Gel, 15%, should receive the following information and instructions:
  • FINACEA Gel, 15%, is to be used only as directed by the physician.
  • FINACEA Gel, 15%, is for external use only. It is not to be used orally, intravaginally, or for the eyes.
  • Cleanse affected area(s) with a very mild soap or a soapless cleansing lotion and pat dry with a soft towel before applying FINACEA Gel, 15%. :*Avoid alcoholic cleansers, tinctures and astringents, abrasives and peeling agents.
  • Avoid contact of FINACEA Gel, 15%, with the mouth, eyes and other mucous membranes. If it does come in contact with the eyes, wash the eyes with large amounts of water and consult a physician if eye irritation persists.
  • The hands should be washed following application of FINACEA Gel, 15%.
  • Cosmetics may be applied after FINACEA Gel, 15%, has dried.
  • Skin irritation (e.g., pruritus, burning, or stinging) may occur during use of FINACEA Gel, 15%, usually during the first few weeks of treatment. :*If irritation is excessive or persists, use of FINACEA Gel, 15%, should be discontinued, and patients should consult their physician.
  • Avoid any foods and beverages that might provoke erythema, flushing, and blushing (including spicy food, alcoholic beverages, and thermally hot drinks, including hot coffee and tea).
  • Patients should report abnormal changes in skin color to their physician.
  • Avoid the use of occlusive dressings or wrappings

Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Azelaic acid interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information regarding Azelaic acid Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. "FINACEA- azelaic acid gel".