Atrial myxoma (patient information)

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Atrial myxoma

Overview

What are the symptoms?

What are the causes?

Who is at highest risk?

When to seek urgent medical care?

Diagnosis

Treatment options

Where to find medical care for Atrial myxoma?

What to expect (Outlook/Prognosis)?

Possible complications

Atrial myxoma On the Web

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myxoma in the news

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Directions to Hospitals Treating Atrial myxoma

Risk calculators and risk factors for Atrial myxoma

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Varun Kumar, M.B.B.S., Maria Fernanda Villarreal, M.D. [2]

Overview

An atrial myxoma is a noncancerous tumor in the upper left or right side of the heart. It grows on the wall (atrial septum) that separates the two sides of the heart.

What are the symptoms of Atrial myxoma?

Symptoms may occur at any time, but most often they accompany a change of body position. Symptoms may include:

The symptoms and signs of left atrial myxomas often mimic mitral stenosis.

General symptoms may also be present, such as:

These general symptoms may also mimic those of infective endocarditis.

What causes Atrial myxoma?

A myxoma is a primary heart (cardiac) tumor. This means that the tumor started within the heart. Most heart tumors start somewhere else. A tumor that originates elsewhere is called a metastatic tumor to the heart.

Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Myxomas are the most common type of these rare tumors. About 75% of myxomas occur in the left atrium of the heart, usually growing out of the wall that divides the two upper chambers of the heart. The rest are in the right atrium. Right atrial myxomas sometimes cause mechanical blockage of the heart valve a condition called tricuspid stenosis and an regular heartbeat, atrial fibrillation.

Who is at highest risk?

Myxomas are more common in women. About 10% of myxomas are passed down through families (inherited). Such tumors are called familial myxomas. They tend to occur in more than one part of the heart at a time, and often cause symptoms at a younger age than other myxomas.

When to seek urgent medical care?

Tell your health care provider if there is any family history of myxomas or if you have symptoms of atrial myxoma.

Diagnosis

The health care provider will listen to the heart with stethoscope. A "tumor plop" (a sound related to movement of the tumor), abnormal heart sounds, or murmur may be heard. These sounds may change when the patient changes position.

Right atrial myxomas rarely produce symptoms until they have grown to be at least 13 cm (about 5 inches) wide.

Imaging tests may include:

Blood tests:

A complete blood count may show anemia and increased white blood cells. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) may be increased.

Treatment options

The tumor must be surgically removed. Some patients will also need their mitral valve replaced. This can be done during the same surgery.

Myxomas may come back if surgery did not remove all of the tumor cells.

Where to find medical care for Atrial myxoma?

Directions to Hospitals Treating Condition

What to expect (Outlook/Prognosis)?

Although a myxoma is not cancer, complications are common. Untreated, a myxoma can lead to an embolism (tumor cells breaking off and traveling with the bloodstream), which can block blood flow or cause the myxoma to grow in another part of the body. Myxoma fragments can move to the brain, eye, or limbs.

If the tumor grows inside the heart, it can block blood flow through the mitral valve and cause symptoms of mitral stenosis. This may require emergency surgery to prevent sudden death.

Possible complications

Sources

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007273.htm


Cardiology


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