Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2

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Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) is an exopeptidase that catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to the nonapeptide angiotensin[1-9],[1] or the conversion of angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7.[2][3] ACE 2 has direct effects on cardiac functiona, and is expressed predominantly in vascular endothelial cells of the heart and the kidneys.[4]

ACE 2 is the receptor for SARS virus.[5]

See also


  1. Donoghue M, Hsieh F, Baronas E, Godbout K, Gosselin M, Stagliano N, Donovan M, Woolf B, Robison K, Jeyaseelan R, Breitbart RE, Acton S (Sep 2000). "A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9". Circulation Research. 87 (5): E1–9. doi:10.1161/01.res.87.5.e1. PMID 10969042.
  2. Keidar S, Kaplan M, Gamliel-Lazarovich A (Feb 2007). "ACE2 of the heart: From angiotensin I to angiotensin (1-7)". Cardiovascular Research. 73 (3): 463–9. doi:10.1016/j.cardiores.2006.09.006. PMID 17049503.
  3. Wang W, McKinnie SM, Farhan M, Paul M, McDonald T, McLean B, Llorens-Cortes C, Hazra S, Murray AG, Vederas JC, Oudit GY (May 2016). "Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 Metabolizes and Partially Inactivates Pyrapelin-13 and Apelin-17: Physiological Effects in the Cardiovascular System". Hypertension. 68: 365–77. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.06892. PMID 27217402.
  4. Boehm M, Nabel EG (Nov 2002). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2--a new cardiac regulator". The New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (22): 1795–7. doi:10.1056/NEJMcibr022472. PMID 12456857.
  5. Kuba K, Imai Y, Rao S, Gao H, Guo F, Guan B, Huan Y, Yang P, Zhang Y, Deng W, Bao L, Zhang B, Liu G, Wang Z, Chappell M, Liu Y, Zheng D, Leibbrandt A, Wada T, Slutsky AS, Liu D, Qin C, Jiang C, Penninger JM (Aug 2005). "A crucial role of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in SARS coronavirus-induced lung injury". Nature Medicine. 11 (8): 875–9. doi:10.1038/nm1267. PMID 16007097.

External links

Further reading

  • Turner AJ, Tipnis SR, Guy JL, Rice G, Hooper NM (Apr 2002). "ACEH/ACE2 is a novel mammalian metallocarboxypeptidase and a homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme insensitive to ACE inhibitors". Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 80 (4): 346–53. doi:10.1139/y02-021. PMID 12025971.
  • Turner AJ, Hiscox JA, Hooper NM (Jun 2004). "ACE2: from vasopeptidase to SARS virus receptor". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 25 (6): 291–4. doi:10.1016/ PMID 15165741.
  • Katovich MJ, Grobe JL, Huentelman M, Raizada MK (May 2005). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as a novel target for gene therapy for hypertension". Experimental Physiology. 90 (3): 299–305. doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2004.028522. PMID 15640278.
  • Ferrario CM, Trask AJ, Jessup JA (Dec 2005). "Advances in biochemical and functional roles of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and angiotensin-(1-7) in regulation of cardiovascular function". American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 289 (6): H2281–90. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00618.2005. PMID 16055515.
  • Jia HP, Look DC, Hickey M, Shi L, Pewe L, Netland J, Farzan M, Wohlford-Lenane C, Perlman S, McCray PB (2006). "Infection of human airway epithelia by SARS coronavirus is associated with ACE2 expression and localization". Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 581: 479–84. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-33012-9_85. ISBN 978-0-387-26202-4. PMID 17037581.
  • Lazartigues E, Feng Y, Lavoie JL (2007). "The two fACEs of the tissue renin–angiotensin systems: implication in cardiovascular diseases". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 13 (12): 1231–45. doi:10.2174/138161207780618911. PMID 17504232.
  • Raizada MK, Ferreira AJ (Aug 2007). "ACE2: a new target for cardiovascular disease therapeutics". Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 50 (2): 112–9. doi:10.1097/FJC.0b013e3180986219. PMID 17703127.
  • Dean RG, Burrell LM (2007). "ACE2 and diabetic complications". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 13 (26): 2730–5. doi:10.2174/138161207781662876. PMID 17897017.
  • Tipnis SR, Hooper NM, Hyde R, Karran E, Christie G, Turner AJ (Oct 2000). "A human homolog of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Cloning and functional expression as a captopril-insensitive carboxypeptidase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (43): 33238–43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002615200. PMID 10924499.
  • Donoghue M, Hsieh F, Baronas E, Godbout K, Gosselin M, Stagliano N, Donovan M, Woolf B, Robison K, Jeyaseelan R, Breitbart RE, Acton S (Sep 2000). "A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9". Circulation Research. 87 (5): E1–9. doi:10.1161/01.res.87.5.e1. PMID 10969042.
  • Vickers C, Hales P, Kaushik V, Dick L, Gavin J, Tang J, Godbout K, Parsons T, Baronas E, Hsieh F, Acton S, Patane M, Nichols A, Tummino P (Apr 2002). "Hydrolysis of biological peptides by human angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (17): 14838–43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M200581200. PMID 11815627.
  • Crackower MA, Sarao R, Oudit GY, Yagil C, Kozieradzki I, Scanga SE, Oliveira-dos-Santos AJ, da Costa J, Zhang L, Pei Y, Scholey J, Ferrario CM, Manoukian AS, Chappell MC, Backx PH, Yagil Y, Penninger JM (Jun 2002). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is an essential regulator of heart function". Nature. 417 (6891): 822–8. doi:10.1038/nature00786. PMID 12075344.
  • Harmer D, Gilbert M, Borman R, Clark KL (Dec 2002). "Quantitative mRNA expression profiling of ACE 2, a novel homologue of angiotensin converting enzyme". FEBS Letters. 532 (1–2): 107–10. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03640-2. PMID 12459472.
  • Donoghue M, Wakimoto H, Maguire CT, Acton S, Hales P, Stagliano N, Fairchild-Huntress V, Xu J, Lorenz JN, Kadambi V, Berul CI, Breitbart RE (Sep 2003). "Heart block, ventricular tachycardia, and sudden death in ACE2 transgenic mice with downregulated connexins". Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. 35 (9): 1043–53. doi:10.1016/S0022-2828(03)00177-9. PMID 12967627.
  • Clark HF, Gurney AL, Abaya E, Baker K, Baldwin D, Brush J, Chen J, Chow B, Chui C, Crowley C, Currell B, Deuel B, Dowd P, Eaton D, Foster J, Grimaldi C, Gu Q, Hass PE, Heldens S, Huang A, Kim HS, Klimowski L, Jin Y, Johnson S, Lee J, Lewis L, Liao D, Mark M, Robbie E, Sanchez C, Schoenfeld J, Seshagiri S, Simmons L, Singh J, Smith V, Stinson J, Vagts A, Vandlen R, Watanabe C, Wieand D, Woods K, Xie MH, Yansura D, Yi S, Yu G, Yuan J, Zhang M, Zhang Z, Goddard A, Wood WI, Godowski P, Gray A (Oct 2003). "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane proteins: a bioinformatics assessment". Genome Research. 13 (10): 2265–70. doi:10.1101/gr.1293003. PMC 403697. PMID 12975309.
  • Li W, Moore MJ, Vasilieva N, Sui J, Wong SK, Berne MA, Somasundaran M, Sullivan JL, Luzuriaga K, Greenough TC, Choe H, Farzan M (Nov 2003). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is a functional receptor for the SARS coronavirus". Nature. 426 (6965): 450–4. doi:10.1038/nature02145. PMID 14647384.
  • Wong SK, Li W, Moore MJ, Choe H, Farzan M (Jan 2004). "A 193-amino acid fragment of the SARS coronavirus S protein efficiently binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (5): 3197–201. doi:10.1074/jbc.C300520200. PMID 14670965.
  • Towler P, Staker B, Prasad SG, Menon S, Tang J, Parsons T, Ryan D, Fisher M, Williams D, Dales NA, Patane MA, Pantoliano MW (Apr 2004). "ACE2 X-ray structures reveal a large hinge-bending motion important for inhibitor binding and catalysis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (17): 17996–8007. doi:10.1074/jbc.M311191200. PMID 14754895.