Alogliptin

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Alogliptin
Adult Indications & Dosage
Pediatric Indications & Dosage
Contraindications
Warnings & Precautions
Adverse Reactions
Drug Interactions
Use in Specific Populations
Administration & Monitoring
Overdosage
Pharmacology
Clinical Studies
How Supplied
Images
Patient Counseling Information
Precautions with Alcohol
Brand Names
Look-Alike Names

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Vignesh Ponnusamy, M.B.B.S. [2]

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Overview

Alogliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor that is FDA approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Common adverse reactions include nasopharyngitis, headache and upper respiratory tract infection.

Adult Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Adult)

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
  • Monotherapy and Combination Therapy
  • NESINA is indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in multiple clinical settings.
  • The recommended dose of NESINA is 25 mg once daily.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Adult)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Alogliptin in adult patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Alogliptin in adult patients.

Pediatric Indications and Dosage

FDA-Labeled Indications and Dosage (Pediatric)

There is limited information regarding FDA-Labeled Use of Alogliptin in pediatric patients.

Off-Label Use and Dosage (Pediatric)

Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Alogliptin in pediatric patients.

Non–Guideline-Supported Use

There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non–Guideline-Supported Use of Alogliptin in pediatric patients.

Contraindications

Warnings

Precautions

  • Pancreatitis
  • There have been postmarketing reports of acute pancreatitis in patients taking NESINA. After initiation of NESINA, patients should be observed carefully for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis. If pancreatitis is suspected, NESINA should promptly be discontinued and appropriate management should be initiated. It is unknown whether patients with a history of pancreatitis are at increased risk for the development of pancreatitis while using NESINA.
  • Hypersensitivity Reactions
  • There have been postmarketing reports of serious hypersensitivity reactions in patients treated with NESINA. These reactions include anaphylaxis, angioedema and severe cutaneous adverse reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction is suspected, discontinue NESINA, assess for other potential causes for the event and institute alternative treatment for diabetes. Use caution in a patient with a history of angioedema with another DPP-4 inhibitor because it is unknown whether such patients will be predisposed to angioedema with NESINA.
  • Hepatic Effects
  • There have been postmarketing reports of fatal and nonfatal hepatic failure in patients taking NESINA, although some of the reports contain insufficient information necessary to establish the probable cause. In randomized controlled studies, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations greater than three times the upper limit of normal (ULN) were observed: 1.3% in alogliptin-treated patients and 1.5% in all comparator-treated patients.
  • Patients with type 2 diabetes may have fatty liver disease, which may cause liver test abnormalities, and they may also have other forms of liver disease, many of which can be treated or managed. Therefore, obtaining a liver test panel and assessing the patient before initiating NESINA therapy is recommended. In patients with abnormal liver tests, NESINA should be initiated with caution.
  • Measure liver tests promptly in patients who report symptoms that may indicate liver injury, including fatigue, anorexia, right upper abdominal discomfort, dark urine or jaundice. In this clinical context, if the patient is found to have clinically significant liver enzyme elevations and if abnormal liver tests persist or worsen, NESINA should be interrupted and investigation done to establish the probable cause. NESINA should not be restarted in these patients without another explanation for the liver test abnormalities.
  • Use with Medications Known to Cause Hypoglycemia
  • Insulin and insulin secretagogues, such as sulfonylureas, are known to cause hypoglycemia. Therefore, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize the risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with NESINA.
  • Macrovascular Outcomes
  • There have been no clinical studies establishing conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with NESINA or any other antidiabetic drug.

Adverse Reactions

Clinical Trials Experience

  • Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
  • Approximately 8500 patients with type 2 diabetes have been treated with NESINA in 14 randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trials with approximately 2900 subjects randomized to placebo and approximately 2200 to an active comparator. The mean exposure to NESINA was 40 weeks with more than 2400 subjects treated for more than one year. Among these patients, 63% had a history of hypertension, 51% had a history of dyslipidemia, 25% had a history of myocardial infarction, 8% had a history of unstable angina and 7% had a history of congestive heart failure. The mean duration of diabetes was seven years, the mean body mass index (BMI) was 31 kg/m2 (51% of patients had a BMI ≥30 kg/m2), and the mean age was 57 years (24% of patients ≥65 years of age).
  • Two placebo-controlled monotherapy trials of 12 and 26 weeks of duration were conducted in patients treated with NESINA 12.5 mg daily, NESINA 25 mg daily and placebo. Four placebo-controlled add-on combination therapy trials of 26 weeks duration were also conducted: with metformin, with a sulfonylurea, with a thiazolidinedione and with insulin.
  • Four placebo-controlled and one active-controlled trials of 16 weeks up through two years in duration were conducted in combination with metformin, in combination with pioglitazone and with pioglitazone added to a background of metformin therapy.
  • Three active-controlled trials of 52 weeks in duration were conducted in patients treated with pioglitazone and metformin, in combination with metformin and as monotherapy compared to glipizide.
  • In a pooled analysis of these 14 controlled clinical trials, the overall incidence of adverse events was 66% in patients treated with NESINA 25 mg compared to 62% with placebo and 70% with active comparator. Overall discontinuation of therapy due to adverse events was 4.7% with NESINA 25 mg compared to 4.5% with placebo or 6.2% with active comparator.
  • Adverse reactions reported in ≥4% of patients treated with NESINA 25 mg and more frequently than in patients who received placebo are summarized in Table 1.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Pancreatitis
  • In the clinical trial program, pancreatitis was reported in 11 of 5902 (0.2%) patients receiving NESINA 25 mg daily compared to five of 5183 (<0.1%) patients receiving all comparators.
  • Hypersensitivity Reactions
  • In a pooled analysis, the overall incidence of hypersensitivity reactions was 0.6% with NESINA 25 mg compared to 0.8% with all comparators. A single event of serum sickness was reported in a patient treated with NESINA 25 mg.
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Hypoglycemic events were documented based upon a blood glucose value and/or clinical signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia.
  • In the monotherapy study, the incidence of hypoglycemia was 1.5% in patients treated with NESINA compared to 1.6% with placebo. The use of NESINA as add-on therapy to glyburide or insulin did not increase the incidence of hypoglycemia compared to placebo. In a monotherapy study comparing NESINA to a sulfonylurea in elderly patients, the incidence of hypoglycemia was 5.4% with NESINA compared to 26% with glipizide (Table 2).
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Vital Signs
  • No clinically meaningful changes in vital signs or in electrocardiograms were observed in patients treated with NESINA.
  • Laboratory Tests
  • No clinically meaningful changes in hematology, serum chemistry or urinalysis were observed in patients treated with NESINA.

Postmarketing Experience

  • The following adverse reactions have been identified during the postmarketing use of NESINA outside the United States. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Drug Interactions

  • NESINA is primarily renally excreted. Cytochrome (CYP) P450-related metabolism is negligible. No significant drug-drug interactions were observed with the CYP-substrates or inhibitors tested or with renally excreted drugs.

Use in Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category (FDA):

  • Pregnancy Category B
  • No adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women have been conducted with NESINA. Based on animal data, NESINA is not predicted to increase the risk of developmental abnormalities. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human risk and exposure, NESINA, like other antidiabetic medications, should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
  • Alogliptin administered to pregnant rabbits and rats during the period of organogenesis was not teratogenic at doses of up to 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg, or 149 times and 180 times, respectively, the clinical dose based on plasma drug exposure (AUC).
  • Doses of alogliptin up to 250 mg/kg (approximately 95 times clinical exposure based on AUC) given to pregnant rats from gestation Day 6 to lactation Day 20 did not harm the developing embryo or adversely affect growth and development of offspring.
  • Placental transfer of alogliptin into the fetus was observed following oral dosing to pregnant rats.


Pregnancy Category (AUS):

  • Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) Pregnancy Category

There is no Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) guidance on usage of Alogliptin in women who are pregnant.

Labor and Delivery

There is no FDA guidance on use of Alogliptin during labor and delivery.

Nursing Mothers

  • Alogliptin is secreted in the milk of lactating rats in a 2:1 ratio to plasma. It is not known whether alogliptin is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when NESINA is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

  • Safety and effectiveness of NESINA in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatic Use

  • Of the total number of patients (N=8507) in clinical safety and efficacy studies treated with NESINA, 2064 (24.3%) patients were 65 years and older and 341 (4%) patients were 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between patients 65 years and over and younger patients. While this clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Gender

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Alogliptin with respect to specific gender populations.

Race

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Alogliptin with respect to specific racial populations.

Renal Impairment

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Alogliptin in patients with renal impairment.

Hepatic Impairment

  • No dose adjustments are required in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Grade A and B) based on insignificant change in systemic exposures (e.g., AUC) compared to subjects with normal hepatic function in a pharmacokinetic study. NESINA has not been studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Grade C). Use caution when administering NESINA to patients with liver disease.

Females of Reproductive Potential and Males

There is no FDA guidance on the use of Alogliptin in women of reproductive potentials and males.

Immunocompromised Patients

There is no FDA guidance one the use of Alogliptin in patients who are immunocompromised.

Administration and Monitoring

Administration

  • Oral

Monitoring

There is limited information regarding Monitoring of Alogliptin in the drug label.

IV Compatibility

There is limited information regarding IV Compatibility of Alogliptin in the drug label.

Overdosage

Acute Overdose

Signs and Symptoms

  • The highest doses of NESINA administered in clinical trials were single doses of 800 mg to healthy subjects and doses of 400 mg once daily for 14 days to patients with type 2 diabetes (equivalent to 32 times and 16 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg, respectively). No serious adverse events were observed at these doses.

Management

  • In the event of an overdose, it is reasonable to institute the necessary clinical monitoring and supportive therapy as dictated by the patient's clinical status. Per clinical judgment, it may be reasonable to initiate removal of unabsorbed material from the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Alogliptin is minimally dialyzable; over a three-hour hemodialysis session, approximately 7% of the drug was removed. Therefore, hemodialysis is unlikely to be beneficial in an overdose situation. It is not known if NESINA is dialyzable by peritoneal dialysis.

Chronic Overdose

There is limited information regarding Chronic Overdose of Alogliptin in the drug label.

Pharmacology

Alogliptin00.png
Alogliptin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-({6-[(3R)-3-aminopiperidin-1-yl]-3-methyl-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl}methyl)benzonitrile
Identifiers
CAS number 850649-62-6
ATC code A10BH04
PubChem 11450633
Chemical data
Formula C18H21N5O2 
Mol. mass 339.39 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Synonyms SYR-322
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 100%
Protein binding 20%
Metabolism Limited, hepatic (CYP2D6- and 3A4-mediated)
Half life 12–21 hours
Excretion Renal (major) and fecal (minor)
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

B(US)

Legal status

Prescription only

Routes Oral

Mechanism of Action

  • Increased concentrations of the incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are released into the bloodstream from the small intestine in response to meals. These hormones cause insulin release from the pancreatic beta cells in a glucose-dependent manner but are inactivated by the DPP-4 enzyme within minutes. GLP-1 also lowers glucagon secretion from pancreatic alpha cells, reducing hepatic glucose production. In patients with type 2 diabetes, concentrations of GLP-1 are reduced but the insulin response to GLP-1 is preserved. Alogliptin is a DPP-4 inhibitor that slows the inactivation of the incretin hormones, thereby increasing their bloodstream concentrations and reducing fasting and postprandial glucose concentrations in a glucose-dependent manner in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Alogliptin selectively binds to and inhibits DPP-4 but not DPP-8 or DPP-9 activity in vitro at concentrations approximating therapeutic exposures.

Structure

  • NESINA tablets contain the active ingredient alogliptin, which is a selective, orally bioavailable inhibitor of the enzymatic activity of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4).
  • Chemically, alogliptin is prepared as a benzoate salt, which is identified as 2-({6-[(3R)-3-aminopiperidin-1-yl]-3-methyl-2,4-dioxo-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-1(2H)-yl}methyl)benzonitrile monobenzoate. It has a molecular formula of C18H21N5O2•C7H6O2 and a molecular weight of 461.51 daltons. The structural formula is:
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • Alogliptin benzoate is a white to off-white crystalline powder containing one asymmetric carbon in the aminopiperidine moiety. It is soluble in dimethylsulfoxide, sparingly soluble in water and methanol, slightly soluble in ethanol and very slightly soluble in octanol and isopropyl acetate.
  • Each NESINA tablet contains 34 mg, 17 mg or 8.5 mg alogliptin benzoate, which is equivalent to 25 mg, 12.5 mg or 6.25 mg, respectively, of alogliptin and the following inactive ingredients: mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, croscarmellose sodium and magnesium stearate. In addition, the film coating contains the following inactive ingredients: hypromellose, titanium dioxide, ferric oxide (red or yellow) and polyethylene glycol, and is marked with printing ink (Gray F1).

Pharmacodynamics

  • Single-dose administration of NESINA to healthy subjects resulted in a peak inhibition of DPP-4 within two to three hours after dosing. The peak inhibition of DPP-4 exceeded 93% across doses of 12.5 mg to 800 mg. Inhibition of DPP-4 remained above 80% at 24 hours for doses greater than or equal to 25 mg. Peak and total exposure over 24 hours to active GLP-1 were three- to four-fold greater with NESINA (at doses of 25 to 200 mg) than placebo. In a 16-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, NESINA 25 mg demonstrated decreases in postprandial glucagon while increasing postprandial active GLP-1 levels compared to placebo over an eight-hour period following a standardized meal. It is unclear how these findings relate to changes in overall glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, NESINA 25 mg demonstrated decreases in two-hour postprandial glucose compared to placebo (-30 mg/dL versus 17 mg/dL, respectively).
  • Multiple-dose administration of alogliptin to patients with type 2 diabetes also resulted in a peak inhibition of DPP-4 within one to two hours and exceeded 93% across all doses (25 mg, 100 mg and 400 mg) after a single dose and after 14 days of once-daily dosing. At these doses of NESINA, inhibition of DPP-4 remained above 81% at 24 hours after 14 days of dosing.
  • Cardiac Electrophysiology
  • In a randomized, placebo-controlled, four-arm, parallel-group study, 257 subjects were administered either alogliptin 50 mg, alogliptin 400 mg, moxifloxacin 400 mg or placebo once daily for a total of seven days. No increase in QTc was observed with either dose of alogliptin. At the 400 mg dose, peak alogliptin plasma concentrations were 19-fold higher than the peak concentrations following the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg.

Pharmacokinetics

  • The pharmacokinetics of NESINA has been studied in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes. After administration of single, oral doses up to 800 mg in healthy subjects, the peak plasma alogliptin concentration (median Tmax) occurred one to two hours after dosing. At the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg, NESINA was eliminated with a mean terminal half-life (T1/2) of approximately 21 hours.
  • After multiple-dose administration up to 400 mg for 14 days in patients with type 2 diabetes, accumulation of alogliptin was minimal with an increase in total (i.e., AUC) and peak (i.e., Cmax) alogliptin exposures of 34% and 9%, respectively. Total and peak exposure to alogliptin increased proportionally across single doses and multiple doses of alogliptin ranging from 25 mg to 400 mg. The intersubject coefficient of variation for alogliptin AUC was 17%. The pharmacokinetics of NESINA was also shown to be similar in healthy subjects and in patients with type 2 diabetes.
  • Absorption
  • The absolute bioavailability of NESINA is approximately 100%. Administration of NESINA with a high-fat meal results in no significant change in total and peak exposure to alogliptin. NESINA may therefore be administered with or without food.
  • Distribution
  • Following a single, 12.5 mg intravenous infusion of alogliptin to healthy subjects, the volume of distribution during the terminal phase was 417 L, indicating that the drug is well distributed into tissues.
  • Alogliptin is 20% bound to plasma proteins.
  • Metabolism
  • Alogliptin does not undergo extensive metabolism and 60% to 71% of the dose is excreted as unchanged drug in the urine.
  • Two minor metabolites were detected following administration of an oral dose of [14C] alogliptin, N-demethylated, M-I (<1% of the parent compound), and N-acetylated alogliptin, M-II (<6% of the parent compound). M-I is an active metabolite and is an inhibitor of DPP-4 similar to the parent molecule; M-II does not display any inhibitory activity toward DPP-4 or other DPP-related enzymes. In vitro data indicate that CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 contribute to the limited metabolism of alogliptin.
  • Alogliptin exists predominantly as the (R)-enantiomer (>99%) and undergoes little or no chiral conversion in vivo to the (S)-enantiomer. The (S)-enantiomer is not detectable at the 25 mg dose.
  • Excretion
  • The primary route of elimination of [14C] alogliptin-derived radioactivity occurs via renal excretion (76%) with 13% recovered in the feces, achieving a total recovery of 89% of the administered radioactive dose. The renal clearance of alogliptin (9.6 L/hr) indicates some active renal tubular secretion and systemic clearance was 14.0 L/hr.
  • Specific Populations
  • Renal Impairment
  • A single-dose, open-label study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of alogliptin 50 mg in patients with chronic renal impairment compared with healthy subjects.
  • In patients with mild renal impairment (creatinine clearance [CrCl] ≥60 to <90 mL/min), an approximate 1.2-fold increase in plasma AUC of alogliptin was observed. Because increases of this magnitude are not considered clinically relevant, dose adjustment for patients with mild renal impairment is not recommended.
  • In patients with moderate renal impairment (CrCl ≥30 to <60 mL/min), an approximate two-fold increase in plasma AUC of alogliptin was observed. To maintain similar systemic exposures of NESINA to those with normal renal function, the recommended dose is 12.5 mg once daily in patients with moderate renal impairment.
  • In patients with severe renal impairment (CrCl ≥15 to <30 mL/min) and ESRD (CrCl <15 mL/min or requiring dialysis), an approximate three- and four-fold increase in plasma AUC of alogliptin were observed, respectively. Dialysis removed approximately 7% of the drug during a three-hour dialysis session. NESINA may be administered without regard to the timing of the dialysis. To maintain similar systemic exposures of NESINA to those with normal renal function, the recommended dose is 6.25 mg once daily in patients with severe renal impairment, as well as in patients with ESRD requiring dialysis.
  • Hepatic Impairment
  • Total exposure to alogliptin was approximately 10% lower and peak exposure was approximately 8% lower in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Grade B) compared to healthy subjects. The magnitude of these reductions is not considered to be clinically meaningful. Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Grade C) have not been studied. Use caution when administering NESINA to patients with liver disease.
  • Gender
  • No dose adjustment of NESINA is necessary based on gender. Gender did not have any clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of alogliptin.
  • Geriatric
  • No dose adjustment of NESINA is necessary based on age. Age did not have any clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of alogliptin.
  • Pediatric
  • Studies characterizing the pharmacokinetics of alogliptin in pediatric patients have not been performed.
  • Race
  • No dose adjustment of NESINA is necessary based on race. Race (White, Black, and Asian) did not have any clinically meaningful effect on the pharmacokinetics of alogliptin.
  • Drug Interactions
  • In Vitro Assessment of Drug Interactions
  • In vitro studies indicate that alogliptin is neither an inducer of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, nor an inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 at clinically relevant concentrations.
  • In Vivo Assessment of Drug Interactions
  • Effects of Alogliptin on the Pharmacokinetics of Other Drugs
  • In clinical studies, alogliptin did not meaningfully increase the systemic exposure to the following drugs that are metabolized by CYP isozymes or excreted unchanged in urine (Figure 1). No dose adjustment of NESINA is recommended based on results of the described pharmacokinetic studies.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.

Nonclinical Toxicology

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
  • Rats were administered oral doses of 75, 400 and 800 mg/kg alogliptin for two years. No drug-related tumors were observed up to 75 mg/kg or approximately 32 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg, based on AUC exposure. At higher doses (approximately 308 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg), a combination of thyroid C-cell adenomas and carcinomas increased in male but not female rats. No drug-related tumors were observed in mice after administration of 50, 150 or 300 mg/kg alogliptin for two years, or up to approximately 51 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of 25 mg, based on AUC exposure.
  • Alogliptin was not mutagenic or clastogenic, with and without metabolic activation, in the Ames test with S. typhimurium and E. coli or the cytogenetic assay in mouse lymphoma cells. Alogliptin was negative in the in vivo mouse micronucleus study.
  • In a fertility study in rats, alogliptin had no adverse effects on early embryonic development, mating or fertility at doses up to 500 mg/kg, or approximately 172 times the clinical dose based on plasma drug exposure (AUC).

Clinical Studies

  • NESINA has been studied as monotherapy and in combination with metformin, a sulfonylurea, a thiazolidinedione (either alone or in combination with metformin or a sulfonylurea) and insulin (either alone or in combination with metformin).
  • A total of 8673 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized in 10 double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled clinical safety and efficacy studies conducted to evaluate the effects of NESINA on glycemic control. The racial distribution of patients exposed to study medication was 68% Caucasian, 15% Asian, 7% Black and 9% other racial groups. The ethnic distribution was 30% Hispanic. Patients had an overall mean age of 55 years (range 21 to 80 years).
  • In patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment with NESINA produced clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvements in A1C compared to placebo. As is typical for trials of agents to treat type 2 diabetes, the mean reduction in A1C with NESINA appears to be related to the degree of A1C elevation at baseline.
  • NESINA had similar changes from baseline in serum lipids compared to placebo.
Patients with Inadequate Glycemic Control on Diet and Exercise
  • A total of 1768 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in three double-blind studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NESINA in patients with inadequate glycemic control on diet and exercise. All three studies had a four-week, single-blind, placebo run-in period followed by a 26-week randomized treatment period. Patients who failed to meet prespecified hyperglycemic goals during the 26-week treatment periods received glycemic rescue therapy.
  • In a 26-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a total of 329 patients (mean baseline A1C = 8%) were randomized to receive NESINA 12.5 mg, NESINA 25 mg or placebo once daily. Treatment with NESINA 25 mg resulted in statistically significant improvements from baseline in A1C and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) compared to placebo at Week 26 (Table 3). A total of 8% of patients receiving NESINA 25 mg and 30% of those receiving placebo required glycemic rescue therapy.
  • Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age or baseline BMI.
  • The mean change in body weight with NESINA was similar to placebo.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • In a 26-week, double-blind, active-controlled study, a total of 655 patients (mean baseline A1C = 8.8%) were randomized to receive NESINA 25 mg alone, pioglitazone 30 mg alone, NESINA 12.5 mg with pioglitazone 30 mg or NESINA 25 mg with pioglitazone 30 mg once daily. Coadministration of NESINA 25 mg with pioglitazone 30 mg resulted in statistically significant improvements from baseline in A1C and FPG compared to NESINA 25 mg alone and to pioglitazone 30 mg alone (Table 4). A total of 3% of patients receiving NESINA 25 mg coadministered with pioglitazone 30 mg, 11% of those receiving NESINA 25 mg alone and 6% of those receiving pioglitazone 30 mg alone required glycemic rescue.
  • Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age or baseline BMI.
  • The mean increase in body weight was similar between pioglitazone alone and NESINA when coadministered with pioglitazone.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • In a 26-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a total of 784 patients inadequately controlled on diet and exercise alone (mean baseline A1C = 8.4%) were randomized to one of seven treatment groups: placebo; metformin HCl 500 mg or metformin HCl 1000 mg twice daily; NESINA 12.5 mg twice daily; NESINA 25 mg daily; or NESINA 12.5 mg in combination with metformin HCl 500 mg or metformin HCl 1000 mg twice daily. Both coadministration treatment arms (NESINA 12.5 mg + metformin HCl 500 mg and NESINA 12.5 mg + metformin HCl 1000 mg) resulted in statistically significant improvements in A1C and FPG when compared with their respective individual alogliptin and metformin component regimens (Table 5). Coadministration treatment arms demonstrated improvements in two-hour postprandial glucose (PPG) compared to NESINA alone or metformin alone (Table 5). A total of 12.3% of patients receiving NESINA 12.5 mg + metformin HCl 500 mg, 2.6% of patients receiving NESINA 12.5 mg + metformin HCl 1000 mg, 17.3% of patients receiving NESINA 12.5 mg, 22.9% of patients receiving metformin HCl 500 mg, 10.8% of patients receiving metformin HCl 1000 mg and 38.7% of patients receiving placebo required glycemic rescue.
  • Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age, race or baseline BMI. The mean decrease in body weight was similar between metformin alone and NESINA when coadministered with metformin.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
Combination Therapy
Add-On Therapy to Metformin
  • A total of 2081 patients with type 2 diabetes participated in two 26-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NESINA as add-on therapy to metformin. In both studies, patients were inadequately controlled on metformin at a dose of at least 1500 mg per day or at the maximum tolerated dose. All patients entered a four-week, single-blind placebo run-in period prior to randomization. Patients who failed to meet prespecified hyperglycemic goals during the 26-week treatment periods received glycemic rescue therapy.
  • In the first 26-week, placebo-controlled study, a total of 527 patients already on metformin (mean baseline A1C = 8%) were randomized to receive NESINA 12.5 mg, NESINA 25 mg or placebo. Patients were maintained on a stable dose of metformin (median dose = 1700 mg) during the treatment period. NESINA 25 mg in combination with metformin resulted in statistically significant improvements from baseline in A1C and FPG at Week 26, when compared to placebo (Table 6). A total of 8% of patients receiving NESINA 25 mg and 24% of patients receiving placebo required glycemic rescue.
  • Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age, baseline BMI or baseline metformin dose.
  • The mean decrease in body weight was similar between NESINA and placebo when given in combination with metformin.
This image is provided by the National Library of Medicine.
  • In the second 26-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, a total of 1554 patients already on metformin (mean baseline A1C = 8.5%) were randomized to one of 12 double-blind treatment groups: placebo; 12.5 mg or 25 mg of NESINA alone; 15 mg, 30 mg or 45 mg of pioglitazone alone; or 12.5 mg or 25 mg of NESINA in combination with 15 mg, 30 mg or 45 mg of pioglitazone. Patients were maintained on a stable dose of metformin (median dose = 1700 mg) during the treatment period. Coadministration of NESINA and pioglitazone provided statistically significant improvements in A1C and FPG compared to placebo, to NESINA alone or to pioglitazone alone when added to background metformin therapy (Table 7, Figure 3). In addition, improvements from baseline A1C were comparable between NESINA alone and pioglitazone alone (15 mg, 30 mg and 45 mg) at Week 26. A total of 4%, 5% or 2% of patients receiving NESINA 25 mg with 15 mg, 30 mg or 45 mg pioglitazone, 33% of patients receiving placebo, 13% of patients receiving NESINA 25 mg and 10%, 15% or 9% of patients receiving pioglitazone 15 mg, 30 mg or 45 mg alone required glycemic rescue.
  • Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age or baseline BMI.
  • The mean increase in body weight was similar between pioglitazone alone and NESINA when coadministered with pioglitazone.
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Add-On Therapy to a Thiazolidinedione
  • In a 26-week, placebo-controlled study, a total of 493 patients inadequately controlled on a thiazolidinedione alone or in combination with metformin or a sulfonylurea (10 mg) (mean baseline A1C = 8%) were randomized to receive NESINA 12.5 mg, NESINA 25 mg or placebo. Patients were maintained on a stable dose of pioglitazone (median dose = 30 mg) during the treatment period; those who were also previously treated on metformin (median dose = 2000 mg) or sulfonylurea (median dose = 10 mg) prior to randomization were maintained on the combination therapy during the treatment period. All patients entered into a four-week, single-blind placebo run-in period prior to randomization. Patients who failed to meet prespecified hyperglycemic goals during the 26-week treatment period received glycemic rescue therapy.
  • The addition of NESINA 25 mg once daily to pioglitazone therapy resulted in statistically significant improvements from baseline in A1C and FPG at Week 26, compared to placebo (Table 8). A total of 9% of patients who were receiving NESINA 25 mg and 12% of patients receiving placebo required glycemic rescue.
  • Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age, baseline BMI or baseline pioglitazone dose.
  • Clinically meaningful reductions in A1C were observed with NESINA compared to placebo regardless of whether subjects were receiving concomitant metformin or sulfonylurea (-0.2% placebo versus -0.9% NESINA) therapy or pioglitazone alone (0% placebo versus -0.52% NESINA).
  • The mean increase in body weight was similar between NESINA and placebo when given in combination with pioglitazone.
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Add-on Combination Therapy with Pioglitazone and Metformin
  • In a 52-week, active-comparator study, a total of 803 patients inadequately controlled (mean baseline A1C = 8.2%) on a current regimen of pioglitazone 30 mg and metformin at least 1500 mg per day or at the maximum tolerated dose were randomized to either receive the addition of NESINA 25 mg or the titration of pioglitazone 30 mg to 45 mg following a four-week, single-blind placebo run-in period. Patients were maintained on a stable dose of metformin (median dose = 1700 mg). Patients who failed to meet prespecified hyperglycemic goals during the 52-week treatment period received glycemic rescue therapy.
  • In combination with pioglitazone and metformin, NESINA 25 mg was shown to be statistically superior in lowering A1C and FPG compared with the titration of pioglitazone from 30 mg to 45 mg at Week 26 and at Week 52 (Table 9; results shown only for Week 52). A total of 11% of patients in the NESINA 25 mg treatment group and 22% of patients in the pioglitazone up-titration group required glycemic rescue.
  • Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age, race or baseline BMI.
  • The mean increase in body weight was similar in both treatment arms.
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Add-On Therapy to a Sulfonylurea
  • In a 26-week, placebo-controlled study, a total of 500 patients inadequately controlled on a sulfonylurea (mean baseline A1C = 8.1%) were randomized to receive NESINA 12.5 mg, NESINA 25 mg or placebo. Patients were maintained on a stable dose of glyburide (median dose = 10 mg) during the treatment period. All patients entered into a four-week, single-blind, placebo run-in period prior to randomization. Patients who failed to meet prespecified hyperglycemic goals during the 26-week treatment period received glycemic rescue therapy.
  • The addition of NESINA 25 mg to glyburide therapy resulted in statistically significant improvements from baseline in A1C at Week 26 when compared to placebo (Table 10). Improvements in FPG observed with NESINA 25 mg were not statistically significant compared with placebo. A total of 16% of patients receiving NESINA 25 mg and 28% of those receiving placebo required glycemic rescue.
  • Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age, baseline BMI or baseline glyburide dose.
  • The mean change in body weight was similar between NESINA and placebo when given in combination with glyburide.
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Add-On Therapy to Insulin
  • In a 26-week, placebo-controlled study, a total of 390 patients inadequately controlled on insulin alone (42%) or in combination with metformin (58%) (mean baseline A1C = 9.3%) were randomized to receive NESINA 12.5 mg, NESINA 25 mg or placebo. Patients were maintained on their insulin regimen (median dose = 55 IU) upon randomization and those previously treated with insulin in combination with metformin (median dose = 1700 mg) prior to randomization continued on the combination regimen during the treatment period. Patients entered the trial on short-, intermediate- or long-acting (basal) insulin or premixed insulin. Patients who failed to meet prespecified hyperglycemic goals during the 26-week treatment period received glycemic rescue therapy.
  • The addition of NESINA 25 mg once daily to insulin therapy resulted in statistically significant improvements from baseline in A1C and FPG at Week 26, when compared to placebo (Table 11). A total of 20% of patients receiving NESINA 25 mg and 40% of those receiving placebo required glycemic rescue.
  • Improvements in A1C were not affected by gender, age, baseline BMI or baseline insulin dose. Clinically meaningful reductions in A1C were observed with NESINA compared to placebo regardless of whether subjects were receiving concomitant metformin and insulin (-0.2% placebo versus -0.8% NESINA) therapy or insulin alone (0.1% placebo versus -0.7% NESINA).
  • The mean increase in body weight was similar between NESINA and placebo when given in combination with insulin.
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How Supplied

  • NESINA tablets are available as film-coated tablets containing 25 mg, 12.5 mg or 6.25 mg of alogliptin as follows:
  • 25 mg tablet: light red, oval, biconvex, film-coated, with "TAK ALG-25" printed on one side, available in:
  • NDC 64764-250-30 Bottles of 30 tablets
  • NDC 64764-250-90 Bottles of 90 tablets
  • NDC 64764-250-50 Bottles of 500 tablets
  • 12.5 mg tablet: yellow, oval, biconvex, film-coated, with "TAK ALG-12.5" printed on one side, available in:
  • NDC 64764-125-30 Bottles of 30 tablets
  • NDC 64764-125-90 Bottles of 90 tablets
  • NDC 64764-125-50 Bottles of 500 tablets
  • 6.25 mg tablet: light pink, oval, biconvex, film-coated, with "TAK ALG-6.25" printed on one side, available in:
  • NDC 64764-625-30 Bottles of 30 tablets
  • NDC 64764-625-90 Bottles of 90 tablets
  • Storage
  • Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).

Storage

There is limited information regarding Alogliptin Storage in the drug label.

Images

Drug Images

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Package and Label Display Panel

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Patient Counseling Information

  • Inform patients of the potential risks and benefits of NESINA.
  • Patients should be informed that acute pancreatitis has been reported during use of NESINA. Patients should be informed that persistent, severe abdominal pain, sometimes radiating to the back, which may or may not be accompanied by vomiting, is the hallmark symptom of acute pancreatitis. Patients should be instructed to promptly discontinue NESINA and contact their physician if persistent severe abdominal pain occurs.
  • Patients should be informed that allergic reactions have been reported during use of NESINA. If symptoms of allergic reactions (including skin rash, hives and swelling of the face, lips, tongue and throat that may cause difficulty in breathing or swallowing) occur, patients should be instructed to discontinue NESINA and seek medical advice promptly.
  • Patients should be informe d that postmarketing reports of liver injury, sometimes fatal, have been reported during use of NESINA. If signs or symptoms of liver injury occur, patients should be instructed to discontinue NESINA and seek medical advice promptly.
  • Inform patients that hypoglycemia can occur, particularly when an insulin secretagogue or insulin is used in combination with NESINA. Explain the risks, symptoms and appropriate management of hypoglycemia.
  • Instruct patients to take NESINA only as prescribed. If a dose is missed, advise patients not to double their next dose.
  • Instruct patients to read the Medication Guide before starting NESINA therapy and to reread each time the prescription is refilled. Instruct patients to inform their healthcare provider if an unusual symptom develops or if a symptom persists or worsens.
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Precautions with Alcohol

  • Alcohol-Alogliptin interaction has not been established. Talk to your doctor about the effects of taking alcohol with this medication.

Brand Names

Look-Alike Drug Names

There is limited information regarding Alogliptin Look-Alike Drug Names in the drug label.

Drug Shortage Status

Price

References

The contents of this FDA label are provided by the National Library of Medicine.

  1. "NESINA alogliptin tablet, film coated".

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