Acute viral nasopharyngitis risk factors
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Despite that infection with common cold tend to have a seasonal pattern, there is no proven association between cold exposure or chilling and the occurrence of common colds.
More common risk factors
Common risk factors for acute viral nasopharyngitis include:
- Ill contact
- Attending daycare centers (for infants and children)
- Allergic rhinitis or sinusitis
- Being immunosuppressed (i.e. in HIV or hematologic malignancy)
Exposure to cold weather
- Despite the fact that most common colds occur in fall and winter, there is no proven association between cold exposure or chilling and the occurrence of common colds.
- Regarding the causation of cold-like symptoms, researchers at the Common Cold Centre at the Cardiff University conducted a study to test the hypothesis that "acute cooling of the feet causes the onset of common cold symptoms." The study measured the subjects' self-reported cold symptoms and their belief of having a cold; but not whether an actual respiratory infection developed. The researchers concluded that common cold symptoms can be generated by acute chilling of the feet, but "further studies are needed to determine the relationship between symptom generation with any respiratory infection."
Less common risk factors
Less common risk factors include:
- Pregnant women are at increased risk of contacting the common cold for up to 2 weeks after delivery. Although, Breastfeeding decreases the risk of contacting the common cold
- Old age (> 65 years)
- Morbid obesity (BMI > 35)
- Heikkinen T, Järvinen A (2003). "The common cold". Lancet. 361 (9351): 51–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12162-9. PMID 12517470.
- Eccles R (2002). "Acute cooling of the body surface and the common cold". Rhinology. 40 (3): 109–14. PMID 12357708.
- Douglas, R.G.Jr, K.M. Lindgren, and R.B. Couch (1968). "Exposure to cold environment and rhinovirus common cold. Failure to demonstrate effect". New Engl. J. Med. 279.
- Johnson C, Eccles R (2005). "Acute cooling of the feet and the onset of common cold symptoms". Family Practice. 22 (6): 608–13. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmi072. PMID 16286463.
- Heeler RM (1997). "Social ties and susceptibility to the common cold". JAMA. 278 (15): 1231–2. PMID 9333254.