Acute tubular necrosis other diagnostic studies
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Acute tubular necrosis other diagnostic studies On the Web
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Renal biopsy and detection of various novel biomarkers in the serum and urine can be helpful in diagnosing acute tubular necrosis.
Other Diagnostic Studies
- Renal biopsy: Finding of acute tubular necrosis on renal biopsy may include:
- Novel biomarkers: Evaluation of various urinary and serum biomarkers may be helpful in patients with acute tubular necrosis to identify renal tubular injury at the very early stage.
|Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)||Elevated levels are found in urine following tubular injury|
|Interleukin-18 (IL-18)||Elevated levels of IL-18 are found in urine after renal tubular injury.|
|Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1)||Produced by proximal tubular cells after ischaemic or nephrotoxic injury. Elevated levels are found in urine following tubular injury|
|Cystatin C||Cysteine protease inhibitor filtered at the glomerulus and reabsorbed at the proximal tubule without secretion. Elevated levels in urine may be found after tubular insult.|
|Liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP)||Produced in proximal tubular cells and in the liver. Elevated levels are found in urine following tubular injury.|
|Tubular enzymes: Alpha glutathione S-transferase, pi-glutathione S-transferase, N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase||Tubular enzymes are elevated in urine following renal tubular injury|
|Retinol binding protein (RBP)||Produced by the liver and completely filtered by glomeruli and reabsorbed, bot secreted by proximal tubular cells. It is released into urine following injury involving renal tubules.|
|Alpha 1 microglobulin, Beta 2 microglobulin||Both are released in urine after renal tubular injury|
|Netrin-1||Increased expression can be found in damaged tubular cells and elevated levels are found in urine.|
- Tavares MB, Chagas de Almeida Mda C, Martins RT, de Sousa AC, Martinelli R, dos-Santos WL (2012). "Acute tubular necrosis and renal failure in patients with glomerular disease". Ren Fail. 34 (10): 1252–7. doi:10.3109/0886022X.2012.723582. PMC 3496189. PMID 23002699.
- Ostermann M, Joannidis M (September 2016). "Acute kidney injury 2016: diagnosis and diagnostic workup". Crit Care. 20 (1): 299. doi:10.1186/s13054-016-1478-z. PMC 5037640. PMID 27670788.
- Herget-Rosenthal S (2005). "One step forward in the early detection of acute renal failure". Lancet. 365 (9466): 1205–6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)74787-5. PMID 15811437.
- Zhou H, Hewitt SM, Yuen PS, Star RA (March 2006). "Acute Kidney Injury Biomarkers - Needs, Present Status, and Future Promise". Nephrol Self Assess Program. 5 (2): 63–71. PMC 2603572. PMID 19096722.
- Parikh CR, Abraham E, Ancukiewicz M, Edelstein CL (October 2005). "Urine IL-18 is an early diagnostic marker for acute kidney injury and predicts mortality in the intensive care unit". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 16 (10): 3046–52. doi:10.1681/ASN.2005030236. PMID 16148039.