Actinic keratosis

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Template:DiseaseDisorder infobox Template:Search infobox Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Kiran Singh, M.D. [2]

Synonyms and Keywords: Solar keratosis; AK

Overview

Actinic keratosis is a premalignant condition of thick, scaly, or crusty patches of skin. It is most common in fair-skinned people who are frequently exposed to the sun, because their pigment isn't very protective. It usually is accompanied by solar damage. Since some of these pre-cancers progress to squamous cell carcinoma, they should be treated.

Pathophysiology

When skin is exposed to the sun constantly, thick, scaly, or crusty bumps appear. The scaly or crusty part of the bump is dry and rough. The growths start out as flat scaly areas, and later grow into a tough, wart-like area.

Diagnosis

Physical Examination

An actinic keratosis site commonly ranges in between 2 to 6 millimeters, and can be dark or light, tan, pink, red, a combination of all these, or the same pigment of one's skin. It may appear on any sun-exposed area, such as the face, ears, neck, scalp, chest, back of hands, forearms, lips etc.

Skin

Face
Extremities

Other Diagnostic Studies

Doctors can usually identify AK by doing a thorough examination. A biopsy may be necessary when the keratosis is large and/or thick, to make sure that the bump is a keratosis and not a skin cancer. Seborrheic keratoses are other bumps that appear in groups like the actinic keratosis but are not caused by sun exposure, and are not related to skin cancers. Seborrheic keratoses may be mistaken for an actinic keratosis.

Treatment

Modalities employed in the treatment of actinic keratosis
Medical Therapy Characteristics
5-Fluorouracil (a chemotherapy agent)

A cream that contains this medication causes AKs to become red and inflamed before they fall off. The application of 5-FU prevents production of DNA on the cells. Treatment products containing 5FU are Efudix, Carac, Fluorocacil, among others.

Electrocautery

Consists of burning off AKs with electricity.

Immunotherapy

Imiquimod uses your body's immune system to kill cancer cells. Improvement of the immune system works its way out up to the cancerous cells and treat the skin cancer. Treatment products containing Imiquimod include Aldara™, Zyclara, Interferon, among others.

Natural direct therapy

Active compound BEC (based on eggplant) works its way to the endo-lectins of the cancerous cells and causes their apoptosis (death). Treatment products containing BEC for skin cancer and AKs are Curaderm BCC, among others.

Photodynamic therapy

This therapy involves application of a chemical on the skin. It destroys cancerous cells with a combination of laser light and drugs, that makes them sensitive to light.

Freezing

Medical professional applies liquid nitrogen (Cryosurgery) to freeze and destroy actinic keratosis and some small, early skin cancers. The dead tissue sloughs off later on.

Different forms of surgery

Regular follow-up after treatment is advised by many doctors. The regular checks are to make sure new bumps have not developed and that old ones haven't become thicker and/or have skin disease.

Primary Prevention

Preventative measures recommended for AK are similar to those for skin cancer:

  • Not staying in the sun for long periods of time without protection (e.g.sunscreen, clothing, hats).
  • Frequently applying powerful sunscreens with SPF ratings greater than 15 and that also block both UVA andUVB light.
  • Using sunscreen even in winter sun exposure.
  • Wearing sun protective clothing such as hats, long-sleeved shirts, long skirts, or pants.
  • Avoiding sun exposure during noon hours is very helpful because ultraviolet light is the most powerful at that time.

Future or Investigational Therapies

As of 2008 a company in Australia named Clinuvel Pharmaceuticals Limited is performing clinical trials with a melanocyte-stimulating hormone named melanotan (which they refer to as CUV1647) for actinic keratosis in organ transplant patients.[2]

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 "Dermatology Atlas".
  2. Clinuvel » Investors » FAQs


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