Acetylcarnitine

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Acetylcarnitine
Acetylcarnitine Wiki Str.png
Clinical data
ATC code
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
E number{{#property:P628}}
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Chemical and physical data
FormulaC9H17NO4
Molar mass203.236

Acetyl-L-carnitine or ALCAR, is an acetylated form of L-carnitine. ALCAR has been claimed to be superior to normal L-carnitine in terms of bioavailability. However, at least one study has suggested that the acetylated form may have a lower oral bioavailability.[1]

It is claimed that ALCAR provides several benefits. Advocates of acetyl-L-carnitine market it as a life extension supplement. There may be some benefit in cases of end stage renal disease or peripheral arterial disease.[2] When supplemented alongside Lipoic acid, ALCAR appears to reverse some of the damage to mitochondria associated with aging.[3]

The percentage of L-carnitine that is absorbed when taken via oral supplementation is much lower than that from food sources. In one particular study, it was shown that approximately 20% of orally supplemented L-carnitine is absorbed, with a bioavailability of roughly 15%, as compared to a bioavailability of between %60 and %75 when absorbed from food.[4]

Choline supplementation may lead to increased L-carnitine retention.[4]

ALCAR supplementation has been shown to be neuroprotective in instances of cerebral ischemia,[5] periphiral nerve injury,[6] and to be beneficial in the treatment of Parkinson's disease in animals.[7]

ALCAR supplementation has also been shown to reverse syptoms associated with mental decline in the eldery.[8]

ALCAR is being researched in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.[9]

References

  1. Eder, K. (2005). "Free and total carnitine concentrations in pig plasma after oral ingestion of various L-carnitine compounds". Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 75 (1): 3–9. Retrieved 2007-3-13. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  2. Brass, Eric P. (1998). "The Role of Carnitine and Carnitine Supplementation During Exercise in Man and in Individuals with Special Needs". Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 17 (3): 207–215. Retrieved 2007-3-13. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  3. Ames, B. N. (2005). "Delaying the mitochondrial decay of aging with acetylcarnitine". Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1033 (1): 108–16. Retrieved 2007-3-13. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  4. 4.0 4.1 "L-Carnitine". PRD Health. Thompson Healthcare. Retrieved 2007-3-13. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  5. Zanelli, Santina A. (2005). "Mechanisms of ischemic neuroprotection by acetyl-L-carnitine". Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1053: 153–161. Retrieved 2007-3-14. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  6. Wilsona, Andrew (2007). "Delayed acetyl-l-carnitine administration and its effect on sensory neuronal rescue after peripheral nerve injurystar, open". J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 60 (2). Retrieved 2007-3-14. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  7. Beal, Flint (2003). "Bioenergetic approaches for neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease". Ann Neurol. 53 (S3): S39–S48. Retrieved 2007-3-14. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  8. Salvioli, G (1994). "L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly". Drugs Exp Clin Res. 20 (4): 169–76. Retrieved 2007-3-14. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  9. Hafiz, Mohmmad Abdul (2006). "Acetyl-L-carnitine-induced up-regulation of heat shock proteins protects cortical neurons against amyloid-beta peptide 1-42-mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity: Implications for Alzheimer's disease". J Neurosci Res. 84 (2): 398–408. Retrieved 2007-3-14. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (help); Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)

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