APAF1

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Identifiers
Aliases
External IDsGeneCards: [1]
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
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RefSeq (mRNA)

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RefSeq (protein)

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Apoptotic protease activating factor 1, also known as APAF1, is a human homolog of C. elegans CED-4 gene.[1][2][3]

Function

This gene encodes a cytoplasmic protein that forms one of the central hubs in the apoptosis regulatory network. This protein contains (from the N terminal) a caspase recruitment domain (CARD), an ATPase domain (NB-ARC), few short helical domains and then several copies of the WD40 repeat domain. Upon binding cytochrome c and dATP, this protein forms an oligomeric apoptosome. The apoptosome binds and cleaves Procaspase-9 protein, releasing its mature, activated form. The precise mechanism for this reaction is still debated though work published by Guy Salvesen suggests that the apoptosome may induce caspase-9 dimerization and subsequent autocatalysis.[4] Activated caspase-9 stimulates the subsequent caspase cascade that commits the cell to apoptosis.

Alternative splicing results in several transcript variants encoding different isoforms.[1]

Structure

APAF1 contains a CARD domain with a Greek key motif composed of six helices, a Rossman fold nucleotide binding domains, a short helical motif and a winged-helix domain.[5]

Interactions

APAF1 has been shown to interact with:

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Entrez Gene: APAF1 apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1".
  2. Zou H, Henzel WJ, Liu X, Lutschg A, Wang X (Aug 1997). "Apaf-1, a human protein homologous to C. elegans CED-4, participates in cytochrome c-dependent activation of caspase-3". Cell. 90 (3): 405–13. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80501-2. PMID 9267021.
  3. Kim H, Jung YK, Kwon YK, Park SH (1999). "Assignment of apoptotic protease activating factor-1 gene (APAF1) to human chromosome band 12q23 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 87 (3–4): 252–3. doi:10.1159/000015436. PMID 10702682.
  4. Pop C, Timmer J, Sperandio S, Salvesen GS (Apr 2006). "The apoptosome activates caspase-9 by dimerization". Molecular Cell. 22 (2): 269–75. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2006.03.009. PMID 16630894.
  5. Riedl SJ, Li W, Chao Y, Schwarzenbacher R, Shi Y (Apr 2005). "Structure of the apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 bound to ADP". Nature. 434 (7035): 926–33. doi:10.1038/nature03465. PMID 15829969.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Cho DH, Hong YM, Lee HJ, Woo HN, Pyo JO, Mak TW, Jung YK (Sep 2004). "Induced inhibition of ischemic/hypoxic injury by APIP, a novel Apaf-1-interacting protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (38): 39942–50. doi:10.1074/jbc.M405747200. PMID 15262985.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Hu Y, Benedict MA, Wu D, Inohara N, Núñez G (Apr 1998). "Bcl-XL interacts with Apaf-1 and inhibits Apaf-1-dependent caspase-9 activation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95 (8): 4386–91. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.8.4386. PMC 22498. PMID 9539746.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Pan G, O'Rourke K, Dixit VM (Mar 1998). "Caspase-9, Bcl-XL, and Apaf-1 form a ternary complex". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (10): 5841–5. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.10.5841. PMID 9488720.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Chu ZL, Pio F, Xie Z, Welsh K, Krajewska M, Krajewski S, Godzik A, Reed JC (Mar 2001). "A novel enhancer of the Apaf1 apoptosome involved in cytochrome c-dependent caspase activation and apoptosis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (12): 9239–45. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006309200. PMID 11113115.
  10. Li P, Nijhawan D, Budihardjo I, Srinivasula SM, Ahmad M, Alnemri ES, Wang X (Nov 1997). "Cytochrome c and dATP-dependent formation of Apaf-1/caspase-9 complex initiates an apoptotic protease cascade". Cell. 91 (4): 479–89. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)80434-1. PMID 9390557.
  11. Saleh A, Srinivasula SM, Balkir L, Robbins PD, Alnemri ES (Aug 2000). "Negative regulation of the Apaf-1 apoptosome by Hsp70". Nature Cell Biology. 2 (8): 476–83. doi:10.1038/35019510. PMID 10934467.

External links

Further reading


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