Thiosulfate (S2O32−) is an oxyanion of sulfur produced by the reaction of sulfite ions with elemental sulfur in boiling water. Thiosulfate occurs naturally in hot springs and geysers, and is produced by certain biochemical processes. It instantly dechlorinates water, and is notable for its use to halt bleaching in the paper-making industry. Thiosulfate is also useful in smelting silver ore, in producing leather goods, and to set dyes in textiles. Sodium thiosulfate was widely used to fix black and white photography negatives after the developing stage.
- S2O32−(aq) + 2H+(aq) → SO2(g) + S(s) + H2O
This reaction is usually used to generate a temporary aqueous suspension to demonstrate the scattering of light in physics. If the light is shone from below, blue light is seen from above, and orange from sideways.
Thiosulfates react with halogens differently, which can be attributed the decrease of oxidizing power down the halogen group:
- 2S2O32−(aq) + I2(aq) → S4O62−(aq) + 2I−(aq)
- S2O32−(aq) + 4Br2(aq) + 5H2O(l) → 2SO42−(aq) + 8Br−(aq) + 10H+(aq)
- S2O32−(aq) + 4Cl2(aq) + 5H2O(l) → 2SO42−(aq) + 8Cl−(aq) + 10H+(aq)
|Methanol / Ethylene glycol||Ethanol - Fomepizole|
|Paracetamol (Acetaminophen)||Acetylcysteine - Glutathione - Methionine|
|Arsenic||Dimercaprol - Succimer|
|Cyanide||4-Dimethylaminophenol - Amyl nitrite - Hydroxocobalamin - Sodium nitrite - Sodium thiosulfate|
|Nerve agent / Organophosphate pesticide||Atropine - Biperiden - Diazepam - Oximes (Pralidoxime, Obidoxime) - see also Cholinesterase|
|Opioid||Diprenorphine - Nalorphine - Naloxone - Naltrexone - Nalmefene|
|Toxic metals (Cadmium, Mercury, Lead etc)||Edetates - Dimercaprol|
|Other||Ipecacuanha - Prednisolone/promethazine - Methylthioninium chloride - Potassium permanganate - Physostigmine - Copper sulfate - Potassium iodide - Digoxin Immune Fab - Prussian blue|
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