|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) is the International Nonproprietary Name of Metrazol and also known as pentetrazol or pentamethylenetetrazol. It is a drug used as a circulatory and respiratory stimulant (another commercial name is Cardiazol). Larger doses cause convulsions, thus it has been used in shock therapy, as discovered by the Hungarian-American neurologist and psychiatrist Ladislas J. Meduna in 1934. It was never considered to be effective, and side-effects such as seizures are difficult to avoid. Its approval by FDA was revoked in 1982.
Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility. PTZ is also a prototypical anxiogenic drug and, has been extensively utilized in animal models of anxiety. PTZ produces a reliable discriminative stimulus which is largely mediated by the GABAA receptor. Several classes of compounds can modulate the PTZ discriminative stimulus including 5-HT1A, 5-HT3, NMDA, glycine, and L-type calcium channel ligands.
Recently, it has been shown that pentetrazol at non-epileptic doses, along with two other compounds (Picrotoxin and bilobalide) can restore the cognitive function (learning and memory) of a mouse model of Down syndrome by inhibiting GABAA receptor without inducing seizures. These results caused renewed interest in pentetrazol as a potential drug candidate for Down syndrome, although clinical trials are probably still a couple of years away.
In 1939, Metrazol (also known as Cardiazol) was replaced by Electroconvulsive therapy as the preferred method for inducing seizures in England's mental hospitals.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 JR Minkel. "Drug May Counteract Down Syndrome", Scientific American, February 25, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
- ↑ Entry for Pentylenetetrazole in the MeSH database
- ↑ Jung M, Lal H, Gatch M (2002). "The discriminative stimulus effects of pentylenetetrazol as a model of anxiety: recent developments". Neurosci Biobehav Rev 26 (4): 429–39. doi:10.1016/S0149-7634(02)00010-6. PMID 12204190.
- ↑ Fernandez F, Morishita W, Zuniga E, Nguyen J, Blank M, Malenka R, Garner C (2007). "Pharmacotherapy for cognitive impairment in a mouse model of Down syndrome". Nat Neurosci. doi:10.1038/nn1860. PMID 17322876.
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