Onchocerciasis classification

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Kalsang Dolma, M.B.B.S.[2]


Onchocerciasis may be classified into different types depending on the cutaneous lesions seen.


Onchocerciasis may be divided into the following types:[1][verification needed]

Erisipela De La Costa

An acute phase, it is characterized by swelling of the face, with erythema and itching.[1] Onchocerciasis causes different kinds of skin changes, which vary in different geographic regions. This skin change, erisípela de la costa, of acute onchocerciasis is most commonly seen among victims in Central and South America.

Mal Morando

This cutaneous condition is characterized by inflammation accompanied by hyperpigmentation.[1]


A cutaneous condition, it is a localized type of onchocerciasis.[1] Additionally, the various skin changes associated with onchocerciasis may be described as follows:[1]

Leopard Skin

The spotted depigmentation of the skin that may occur with onchocerciasis[1]

Elephant Skin

The thickening of human skin that may be associated with onchocerciasis[1]

Lizard Skin

The thickened, wrinkled skin changes that may result with onchocerciasis[1]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; Elston, Dirk M; Odom, Richard B. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical dermatology (10th ed.). Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. OCLC 62736861.