Oliguria (patient information)
Oliguria On the Web
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Decreased urine output is defined as producing less than 500 milliliters of urine in 24 hours.
What causes Oliguria?
- Dehydration due to vomiting, diarrhea, or fever, with a lack of adequate fluid intake.
- Total urinary tract obstruction, such as from an enlarged prostate.
- Severe infection or any other medical condition leading to shock.
- Use of certain medications such as anticholinergics, methotrexate, and diuretics.
Who is at highest risk?
Patient having any of the conditions mentioned in the causes are at risk of oliguria.
When to seek urgent medical care?
Contact your health care provider if you have:
- A noticeable and consistent decrease in urine output.
- Vomiting, diarrhea, or high fever and are unable to replace fluids by mouth.
- A decrease in urine output associated with dizziness, lightheadedness, or rapid pulse.
The health care provider will perform a physical exam and ask questions about your medical history and symptoms, including:
- Time pattern
- When did this begin?
- Did it occur suddenly?
- Has it rapidly become worse?
- How much do you drink each day?
- Does drinking more increase your urine output?
- How much urine do you produce each day?
- What color is the urine?
- Aggravating factors
- What medications do you take?
- Do you have any allergies?
- Do you have access to adequate fluids?
- Medical history
Tests that may be done include:
- Blood studies to monitor electrolytes and kidney function
- CT (cat) scan of the abdomen
- Intravenous pyelogram (IVP)
- Renal scan
- Abdominal ultrasound
- Urine tests, including tests for infection
The treatment mainly depends on the cause.
Follow prescribed fluid regimens and measure urine output as directed.
Medications to avoid
Patients diagnosed with anuria should avoid using the following medications:
- Ethacrynic acid
- Olmesartan Medoxomil-Hydrochlorothiazide
If you have been diagnosed with anuria, consult your physician before starting or stopping any of these medications.
Where to find medical care for Oliguria?
What to expect (Outlook/Prognosis)?
Prognosis depends on the cause of oliguria.
Although a significant decrease in urine output may indicate a serious, even life-threatening condition, adequate urine output can be restored with prompt medical treatment.
Prevention depends on the underlying cause.