Nasopharyngeal carcinoma natural history, complications and prognosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1] Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Homa Najafi, M.D.[2]Faizan Sheraz, M.D. [3]

Overview

If left untreated nasopharyngeal carcinoma produces few symptoms early in the course of the disease. Non-keratinizing nasopharyngeal carcinoma is associated with a 5 year survival rate of 65%. The common complications of nasopharyngeal carcinoma's treatment include Radiation necrosis of the temporal lobes, Cranial nerve palsies, encephalomyelopathy, Atrophy and fibrosis of the muscles of mastication, atrophy of salivary glands, hearing loss, and osteoradionecrosis.

Natural History

Complications

Complications of radiotherapy include:[2][3][4][5][6][7]

Complications of chemotherapy include:[8]

Prognosis

Prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is influenced by tumor type:[9][10]

  • Type I: Keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma - 42% 5 year survival
  • Type II: Non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma - 65% 5 year survival
  • Type III: Undifferentiated carcinoma - 14% 5 year survival

References

  1. Petersson, Fredrik (2015). "Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: A review". Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology. 32 (1): 54–73. doi:10.1053/j.semdp.2015.02.021. ISSN 0740-2570.
  2. A. W. Lee, S. C. Law, S. H. Ng, D. K. Chan, Y. F. Poon, W. Foo, S. Y. Tung, F. K. Cheung & J. H. Ho (1992). "Retrospective analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated during 1976-1985: late complications following megavoltage irradiation". The British journal of radiology. 65 (778): 918–928. doi:10.1259/0007-1285-65-778-918. PMID 1422667. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. A. W. Lee, S. H. Ng, J. H. Ho, V. K. Tse, Y. F. Poon, C. C. Tse, G. K. Au, S. K. O, W. H. Lau & W. W. Foo (1988). "Clinical diagnosis of late temporal lobe necrosis following radiation therapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma". Cancer. 61 (8): 1535–1542. PMID 3349419. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  4. A. W. Lee, W. Foo, R. Chappell, J. F. Fowler, W. M. Sze, Y. F. Poon, S. C. Law, S. H. Ng, S. K. O, S. Y. Tung, W. H. Lau & J. H. Ho (1998). "Effect of time, dose, and fractionation on temporal lobe necrosis following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma". International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 40 (1): 35–42. PMID 9422555. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. Anne W. M. Lee, Dora L. W. Kwong, Sing Fai Leung, Stewart Y. Tung, Wai Man Sze, Jonathan S. T. Sham, Peter M. L. Teo, To Wai Leung, Po Man Wu, Rick Chappell, Lester J. Peters & John F. Fowler (2002). "Factors affecting risk of symptomatic temporal lobe necrosis: significance of fractional dose and treatment time". International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics. 53 (1): 75–85. PMID 12007944. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  6. J. Chong, L. K. Hinckley & L. E. Ginsberg (2000). "Masticator space abnormalities associated with mandibular osteoradionecrosis: MR and CT findings in five patients". AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. 21 (1): 175–178. PMID 10669246. Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  7. Chong, V.F.H.; Ong, C.K. (2008). "Nasopharyngeal carcinoma". European Journal of Radiology. 66 (3): 437–447. doi:10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.03.029. ISSN 0720-048X.
  8. Mould, R F; Tai, T H P (2002). "Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: treatments and outcomes in the 20th century". The British Journal of Radiology. 75 (892): 307–339. doi:10.1259/bjr.75.892.750307. ISSN 0007-1285.
  9. Richard Cote, Saul Suster, Lawrence Weiss, Noel Weidner (Editor). Modern Surgical Pathology (2 Volume Set). London: W B Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-7253-1.
  10. Treatment and prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Dr Bruno Di Muzio and Dr Frank Gaillard et al. Radiopaedia 2015. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/nasopharyngeal-carcinoma

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