Myelofibrosis risk factors

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sabawoon Mirwais, M.B.B.S, M.D.[2], Sujit Routray, M.D. [3]


Myelofibrosis is a rare disorder and its common risk factors may be age, other myeloproliferative disorders, malignancies, radiation, or industrial chemical exposure.

Risk Factors

Common risk factors in the development of myelofibrosis include:


  1. Kreft A, Wiese B, Weiss M, Choritz H, Buhr T, Büsche G, Georgii A (March 2004). "Analysis of risk factors of the evolution of myelofibrosis in pre-fibrotic chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis: a retrospective study based on follow up biopsies of 70 patients by using the RECPAM method". Leuk. Lymphoma. 45 (3): 553–9. PMID 15160918.
  2. Boiocchi L, Mathew S, Gianelli U, Iurlo A, Radice T, Barouk-Fox S, Knowles DM, Orazi A (December 2013). "Morphologic and cytogenetic differences between post-polycythemic myelofibrosis and primary myelofibrosis in fibrotic stage". Mod. Pathol. 26 (12): 1577–85. doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.109. PMID 23787440.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Passamonti F, Giorgino T, Mora B, Guglielmelli P, Rumi E, Maffioli M, Rambaldi A, Caramella M, Komrokji R, Gotlib J, Kiladjian JJ, Cervantes F, Devos T, Palandri F, De Stefano V, Ruggeri M, Silver RT, Benevolo G, Albano F, Caramazza D, Merli M, Pietra D, Casalone R, Rotunno G, Barbui T, Cazzola M, Vannucchi AM (December 2017). "A clinical-molecular prognostic model to predict survival in patients with post polycythemia vera and post essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis". Leukemia. 31 (12): 2726–2731. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.169. PMID 28561069.
  4. Masarova L, Bose P, Daver N, Pemmaraju N, Newberry KJ, Manshouri T, Cortes J, Kantarjian HM, Verstovsek S (August 2017). "Patients with post-essential thrombocythemia and post-polycythemia vera differ from patients with primary myelofibrosis". Leuk. Res. 59: 110–116. doi:10.1016/j.leukres.2017.06.001. PMC 5573611. PMID 28601551.
  5. Passamonti F, Mora B, Barraco D, Maffioli M (June 2018). "Post-ET and Post-PV Myelofibrosis: Updates on a Distinct Prognosis from Primary Myelofibrosis". Curr Hematol Malig Rep. 13 (3): 173–182. doi:10.1007/s11899-018-0453-y. PMID 29713873.
  6. Ikeda K, Ueda K, Sano T, Ogawa K, Ikezoe T, Hashimoto Y, Morishita S, Komatsu N, Ohto H, Takeishi Y (2017). "The Amelioration of Myelofibrosis with Thrombocytopenia by a JAK1/2 Inhibitor, Ruxolitinib, in a Post-polycythemia Vera Myelofibrosis Patient with a JAK2 Exon 12 Mutation". Intern. Med. 56 (13): 1705–1710. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.56.7871. PMC 5519475. PMID 28674362.
  7. Li B, Gale RP, Xu Z, Qin T, Song Z, Zhang P, Bai J, Zhang L, Zhang Y, Liu J, Huang G, Xiao Z (May 2017). "Non-driver mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasm-associated myelofibrosis". J Hematol Oncol. 10 (1): 99. doi:10.1186/s13045-017-0472-5. PMC 5414291. PMID 28464892.
  8. Sakatoku K, Takeoka Y, Araki T, Miura A, Fujitani Y, Yamamura R, Miyagi Y, Senzaki H, Ohta K (2017). "Lymphocyte-depleted classical Hodgkin lymphoma accompanied by myelofibrosis". Rinsho Ketsueki (in Japanese). 58 (7): 772–775. doi:10.11406/rinketsu.58.772. PMID 28781273.
  9. Fu R, Yu H, Wu YH, Liu H, Shao ZH (September 2015). "Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with myelofibrosis: A case report". Oncol Lett. 10 (3): 1551–1554. doi:10.3892/ol.2015.3438. PMC 4533276. PMID 26622707.
  10. Brandt L, Emanuelsson H, Mitelman F, Stenstam M, Söderström N (1977). "Pronounced deficiency in T-cells and lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations in a patient with sarcoidosis, myelofibrosis and acute leukaemia following thorotrast angiography". Acta Med Scand. 201 (5): 487–9. PMID 302634.
  11. Arnold AG, Oelbaum MH (February 1980). "Thorotrast administration followed by myelofibrosis". Postgrad Med J. 56 (652): 124–7. PMC 2425512. PMID 7393792.
  12. Jennings RC, Priestley SE (December 1978). "Haemangioendothelioma (Kupffer cell angiosarcoma), myelofibrosis, splenic atrophy, and myeloma paraproteinaemia after parenteral thorotrast administration". J. Clin. Pathol. 31 (12): 1125–32. PMC 1145517. PMID 748384.
  13. Bausà R, Navarro L, Cortès-Franch I (2017). "[Myelofibrosis in a benzene-exposed cleaning worker]". Arch Prev Riesgos Labor (in Spanish; Castilian). 20 (3): 167–169. doi:10.12961/aprl.2017.20.3.03. PMID 28715625.
  14. Hu H (January 1987). "Benzene-associated myelofibrosis". Ann. Intern. Med. 106 (1): 171–2. PMID 3789571.
  15. Tondel M, Persson B, Carstensen J (February 1995). "Myelofibrosis and benzene exposure". Occup Med (Lond). 45 (1): 51–2. PMID 7703476.
  16. Visfeldt J, Andersson M (January 1995). "Pathoanatomical aspects of malignant haematological disorders among Danish patients exposed to thorium dioxide". APMIS. 103 (1): 29–36. PMID 7695889.