Ganglioneuroma pathophysiology

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Sujit Routray, M.D. [2]

Overview

Ganglioneuromas are derived from the primordial neural crest cells, which are undifferentiated cells of the sympathetic nervous system. Genes involved in the pathogenesis of ganglioneuroma include MYCN oncogene and chromosome 1p36. On gross pathology, ganglioneuromas are characterized by solid, white, firm, well-circumscribed, and nodular tumors. On microscopic histopathological analysis, ganglioneuromas are characterized by spindle-shaped cells with cell borders in a fibrillar matrix containing ganglion cells with large round nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm.[1]

Pathophysiology

Pathogenesis

Genetics

Development of ganglioneuroma is the result of multiple genetic mutations. Genes involved in the pathogenesis of ganglioneuroma include MYCN oncogene and chromosome 1p36.

Associated Conditions

Ganglioneuromas may be associated with:[2]

Gross Pathology

  • On gross pathology, ganglioneuromas are characterized by solid, white, firm, well-circumscribed, and nodular tumors.
  • Gangliocytoma is commonly located in the following regions:[2]

Adrenal ganglioneuroma 02.JPG

Microscopic Pathology

  • On microscopic histopathological analysis, ganglioneuromas are characterized by spindle-shaped cells with cell borders in a fibrillar matrix containing ganglion cells with large round nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. No atypia or mitotic activity is evident. The ganglion cells stain positive for S-100 protein.[1]
  • Ganglioneuromas are well differentiated neuronal tumors that do not contain immature elements.

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References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Vasiliadis K, Papavasiliou C, Fachiridis D, Pervana S, Michaelides M, Kiranou M; et al. (2012). "Retroperitoneal extra-adrenal ganglioneuroma involving the infrahepatic inferior vena cava, celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery: A case report". Int J Surg Case Rep. 3 (11): 541–3. doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2012.07.008. PMC 3437388. PMID 22907039.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Pathology of ganglioneuroma. Dr Bruno Di Muzio and Dr Yuranga Weerakkody et al. Radiopaedia 2015. http://radiopaedia.org/articles/ganglioneuroma