Chronic stable angina revascularization percutaneous coronary intervention
Chronic stable angina Microchapters
Alternative Therapies for Refractory Angina
Guidelines for Asymptomatic Patients
Chronic stable angina revascularization percutaneous coronary intervention On the Web
Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. ; Associate Editor(s)-In-Chief: Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. ; John Fani Srour, M.D.; Jinhui Wu, M.D.; Lakshmi Gopalakrishnan, M.B.B.S.; Aysha Aslam, M.B.B.S
Percutaneous coronary intervention for coronary artery disease first began in 1977, as a valuable mode of revascularization, wherein at the point of coronary stenosis a catheter-borne balloon is inflated to relieve the stenosis.
The advantages of PCI for the treatment of CAD are many and include:
- Low level of procedure-related morbidity and mortality rate in properly selected patients
- Shorter hospital stay
- Early return to activity
- Overall feasibility of multiple procedures
The main disadvantages of PCI are:
- Risk of acute coronary occlusion during PCI
- Increased incidence of restenosis in lesions that were successfully treated.
Ideal candidates for PTCA/PCI include patients:
- Less than 75 years of age with stable angina
- With single-vessel and/or single-lesion CAD
- Without a history of diabetes
- With objective large ischemia - in particular, lesions less than 10 mm, readily accessible, concentric, and discrete are best suited for revascularization by PCI
On the contrary, chronic total occlusions that cannot be crossed, lesions greater than 20 mm, tortuous, irregular, angulated, calcified, severely stenotic with one or more lesion greater than 90% stenosis present in an artery are associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from the procedure. In addition, PCI is used with reservation in diabetics with multi-vessel disease and in patients with unprotected left main stenosis. Other important factors include the operator volume and the presence or absence of onsite cardiovascular surgeon.
Primary success of coronary intervention is generally defined as an absolute increase of 20% points in the luminal diameter and a final diameter obstruction of less than 30%. Such angiographic success can be anticipated in more than 90% of properly selected patients.
Over the years, alternative methods of percutaneous treatment developed include the use of:
- Intracoronary brachytherapy for in-stent restenosis.
- Cutting balloon with metal razors to avoid the spillage and subsequent reduction in the incidence of vessel trauma.
- Burr rotablation that pulverizes the atheromatous material.
- Intracoronary stents designed to maintain the lumen size.
PCI in Patients with Chronic Stable Angina
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