Cholangiocarcinoma risk factors
Cholangiocarcinoma risk factors On the Web
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Clinical data has suggested that the development of cholangiocarcinoma is related to several factors.
- Chronic inflammation of the bile duct: Clinical data suggest patients who have chronic inflammation of the bile duct such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, ulcerative colitis, bile duct stones, choledochal cysts and cirrhosis have high risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma.
- Liver fluke infections: Liver fluke infection is a major cause of cholangiocarcinoma in some Asian countries.
- Exposure to thorotrast: Thorotrast, widely used as a contrast agent for x-rays until 1950s, was found to lead to hepatic cancer and cholangiocarcinoma.
- Obesity: Epidemiological survey show being overweight or obese can increase the risk of developing cancers of cholangiocarcinoma.
- Age: Clinical data show old people are more likely to developing cholangiocarcinoma.
A number of risk factors for the development of cholangiocarcinoma have been described; in the Western world, the most common of these is primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), an inflammatory disease of the bile ducts which is in turn closely associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). Epidemiologic studies have suggested that the lifetime risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma for a person with PSC is 10%–15%, although autopsy series have found rates as high as 30% in this population. The mechanism by which PSC increases the risk of cholangiocarcinoma is not well-understood.
Certain parasitic liver diseases may be risk factors as well. Colonization with the liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini (found in Thailand, Laos, and Malaysia) or Clonorchis sinensis (found in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam) has been associated with the development of cholangiocarcinoma. Patients with chronic liver disease, whether in the form of viral hepatitis (e.g. hepatitis B or C), alcoholic liver disease, or cirrhosis from other causes, are at increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma. HIV infection was also identified in one study as a potential risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma, although it was unclear whether HIV itself or correlated factors (e.g. hepatitis C infection) were responsible for the association.
Congenital liver abnormalities, such as Caroli's syndrome or choledochal cysts, have been associated with an approximately 15% lifetime risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma. The rare inherited disorders Lynch syndrome II and biliary papillomatosis are associated with cholangiocarcinoma. The presence of gallstones (cholelithiasis) is not clearly associated with cholangiocarcinoma. However, intrahepatic stones (so-called hepatolithiasis), which are rare in the West but common in parts of Asia, have been strongly associated with cholangiocarcinoma. Exposure to Thorotrast, a form of thorium dioxide which was used as a radiologic contrast medium, has been linked to the development of cholangiocarcinoma as late as 30–40 years after exposure; Thorotrast was banned in the United States in the 1950s due to its carcinogenicity.
- ↑ Chapman R. "Risk factors for biliary tract carcinogenesis". Ann Oncol 10 Suppl 4: 308-11. PMID 10436847.
- ↑ Epidemiologic studies which have addressed the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in people with primary sclerosing cholangitis include the following:
- Bergquist A, Ekbom A, Olsson R, Kornfeldt D, Lööf L, Danielsson A, Hultcrantz R, Lindgren S, Prytz H, Sandberg-Gertzén H, Almer S, Granath F, Broomé U (2002). "Hepatic and extrahepatic malignancies in primary sclerosing cholangitis". J Hepatol 36 (3): 321-7. PMID 11867174.
- Bergquist A, Glaumann H, Persson B, Broomé U (1998). "Risk factors and clinical presentation of hepatobiliary carcinoma in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis: a case-control study". Hepatology 27 (2): 311-6. PMID 9462625.
- Burak K, Angulo P, Pasha T, Egan K, Petz J, Lindor K (2004). "Incidence and risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma in primary sclerosing cholangitis". Am J Gastroenterol 99 (3): 523-6. PMID 15056096.
- ↑ Watanapa P (1996). "Cholangiocarcinoma in patients with opisthorchiasis". Br J Surg 83 (8): 1062–64. PMID 8869303.
- ↑ Watanapa P, Watanapa W (2002). "Liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma". Br J Surg 89 (8): 962-70. PMID 12153620.
- ↑ Shin H, Lee C, Park H, Seol S, Chung J, Choi H, Ahn Y, Shigemastu T (1996). "Hepatitis B and C virus, Clonorchis sinensis for the risk of liver cancer: a case-control study in Pusan, Korea". Int J Epidemiol 25 (5): 933-40. PMID 8921477.
- ↑ Kobayashi M, Ikeda K, Saitoh S, Suzuki F, Tsubota A, Suzuki Y, Arase Y, Murashima N, Chayama K, Kumada H (2000). "Incidence of primary cholangiocellular carcinoma of the liver in Japanese patients with hepatitis C virus-related cirrhosis". Cancer 88 (11): 2471–7. PMID 10861422.
- ↑ Yamamoto S, Kubo S, Hai S, Uenishi T, Yamamoto T, Shuto T, Takemura S, Tanaka H, Yamazaki O, Hirohashi K, Tanaka T (2004). "Hepatitis C virus infection as a likely etiology of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma". Cancer Sci 95 (7): 592-5. PMID 15245596.
- ↑ Lu H, Ye M, Thung S, Dash S, Gerber M (2000). "Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA sequences in cholangiocarcinomas in Chinese and American patients". Chin Med J (Engl) 113 (12): 1138–41. PMID 11776153.
- ↑ Sorensen H, Friis S, Olsen J, Thulstrup A, Mellemkjaer L, Linet M, Trichopoulos D, Vilstrup H, Olsen J (1998). "Risk of liver and other types of cancer in patients with cirrhosis: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark". Hepatology 28 (4): 921-5. PMID 9755226.
- ↑ Lipsett P, Pitt H, Colombani P, Boitnott J, Cameron J (1994). "Choledochal cyst disease. A changing pattern of presentation". Ann Surg 220 (5): 644-52. PMID 7979612.
- ↑ Dayton M, Longmire W, Tompkins R (1983). "Caroli's Disease: a premalignant condition?". Am J Surg 145 (1): 41-8. PMID 6295196.
- ↑ Mecklin J, Järvinen H, Virolainen M (1992). "The association between cholangiocarcinoma and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma". Cancer 69 (5): 1112–4. PMID 1310886.
- ↑ Lee S, Kim M, Lee S, Jang S, Song M, Kim K, Kim H, Seo D, Song D, Yu E, Lee S, Min Y (2004). "Clinicopathologic review of 58 patients with biliary papillomatosis". Cancer 100 (4): 783-93. PMID 14770435.
- ↑ Lee C, Wu C, Chen G (2002). "What is the impact of coexistence of hepatolithiasis on cholangiocarcinoma?". J Gastroenterol Hepatol 17 (9): 1015–20. PMID 12167124.
- ↑ Su C, Shyr Y, Lui W, P'Eng F (1997). "Hepatolithiasis associated with cholangiocarcinoma". Br J Surg 84 (7): 969-73. PMID 9240138.
- ↑ Donato F, Gelatti U, Tagger A, Favret M, Ribero M, Callea F, Martelli C, Savio A, Trevisi P, Nardi G (2001). "Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatitis C and B virus infection, alcohol intake, and hepatolithiasis: a case-control study in Italy". Cancer Causes Control 12 (10): 959-64. PMID 11808716.
- ↑ Sahani D, Prasad S, Tannabe K, Hahn P, Mueller P, Saini S. "Thorotrast-induced cholangiocarcinoma: case report". Abdom Imaging 28 (1): 72-4. PMID 12483389.
- ↑ Zhu A, Lauwers G, Tanabe K (2004). "Cholangiocarcinoma in association with Thorotrast exposure". J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 11 (6): 430-3. PMID 15619021.
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