Acute retinal necrosis medical therapy

Jump to: navigation, search

Acute retinal necrosis Microchapters

Home

Patient Information

Overview

Historical Perspective

Classification

Pathophysiology

Causes

Differentiating Acute retinal necrosis from other Diseases

Epidemiology and Demographics

Risk Factors

Screening

Natural History, Complications and Prognosis

Diagnosis

Diagnostic Criteria

History and Symptoms

Physical Examination

Laboratory Findings

Chest X Ray

CT

MRI

Echocardiography or Ultrasound

Other Imaging Findings

Other Diagnostic Studies

Treatment

Medical Therapy

Surgery

Primary Prevention

Secondary Prevention

Cost-Effectiveness of Therapy

Future or Investigational Therapies

Case Studies

Case #1

Acute retinal necrosis medical therapy On the Web

Most recent articles

Most cited articles

Review articles

CME Programs

Powerpoint slides

Images

American Roentgen Ray Society Images of Acute retinal necrosis medical therapy

All Images
X-rays
Echo & Ultrasound
CT Images
MRI

Ongoing Trials at Clinical Trials.gov

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse

NICE Guidance

FDA on Acute retinal necrosis medical therapy

CDC on Acute retinal necrosis medical therapy

Acute retinal necrosis medical therapy in the news

Blogs on Acute retinal necrosis medical therapy

Directions to Hospitals Treating Acute retinal necrosis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Acute retinal necrosis medical therapy

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Faizan Sheraz, M.D. [2], Luke Rusowicz-Orazem, B.S.

Overview

The mainstays of medical therapy for acute retinal necrosis are regimens of empiric and pathogen-directed antimicrobial therapy.

Medical Therapy

  • Preferred regimen: Acyclovir 10 mg/kg IV q8h for 1-2 weeks followed by Acyclovir 400 mg PO bid for chronic maintenance
  • Alternative regimen (1): Acyclovir 10 mg/kg IV q8h for 1-2 weeks followed by Valacyclovir 1 g IV q8h for 6 weeks to several months followed by Acyclovir 400 mg PO bid for chronic maintenance
  • Alternative regimen (2), unresponsive: Foscarnet 1.2-2.4 mg/0.1 mL intravitreal injection 1-3 times per week AND (Ganciclovir 5 mg/kg IV q12 for 2 weeks followed by 5 mg/kg q24h for 5-7 weeks OR Foscarnet 60 mg/kg IV q8h for 2 weeks followed by 90-120 mg/kg IV q24h OR Cidofovir 5 mg/kg IV for 2 weeks followed by 5 mg/kg IV q2weeks) followed by (Acyclovir 400 mg PO bid for chronic maintenance OR Valganciclovir 900 mg PO qd for chronic maintenance)
  • Note: Ganciclovir is administered for patients with suspected CMV acute retinal necrosis, whereas Foscarnet is administered for patients who are not immunocompromised.
  • Pathogen-directed antimicrobial therapy
  • HSV or VZV
  • Preferred regimen: Acyclovir 10 mg/kg IV q8h for 1-2 weeks followed by Acyclovir 400 mg PO bid for chronic maintenance
  • Alternative regimen: Acyclovir 10 mg/kg IV q8h for 1-2 weeks followed by Valacyclovir 1 g IV q8h for 6 weeks to several months followed by Acyclovir 400 mg PO bid for chronic maintenance
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Preferred regimen: Foscarnet 1.2-2.4 mg/0.1 mL intravitreal injection 1-3 times per week AND Ganciclovir 5 mg/kg IV q12 for 2 weeks followed by 5 mg/kg q24h for 5-7 weeks followed by Valganciclovir 900 mg PO qd for chronic maintenance

References

  1. Muthiah MN, Michaelides M, Child CS, Mitchell SM (2007). "Acute retinal necrosis: a national population‐based study to assess the incidence, methods of diagnosis, treatment strategies and outcomes in the UK". Br J Ophthalmol. 91 (11): 1452–5. doi:10.1136/bjo.2007.114884. PMC 2095441. PMID 17504853.
  2. Kezuka T, Atherton SS (2007). "Acute retinal necrosis". Chem Immunol Allergy. Chemical Immunology and Allergy. 92: 244–53. doi:10.1159/000099275. ISBN 3-8055-8187-4. PMID 17264500.
  3. Flaxel CJ, Yeh S, Lauer AK (2013). "Combination systemic and intravitreal antiviral therapy in the management of acute retinal necrosis syndrome (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis)". Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 111: 133–44. PMC 3868412. PMID 24385671.
  4. Shantha JG, Weissman HM, Debiec MR, Albini TA, Yeh S (2015). "Advances in the management of acute retinal necrosis". Int Ophthalmol Clin. 55 (3): 1–13. doi:10.1097/IIO.0000000000000077. PMC 4567584. PMID 26035758.

Linked-in.jpg