Acute monocytic leukemia pathophysiology

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Acute monocytic leukemia Microchapters

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

Pathophysiology

Genetics

M5 is associated with characteristic chromosomal abnormalities, often involving 11q23 or t(9;11)affecting the MLL locus, however the MLL translocation is also found in other AML subtypes. MLL is believed to be prognostically unfavorable in AML-M5 compared to other genetic alterations involving MLL such as t(9;11) The t(8;16) translocation in MLL is associated with hemophagocytosis.

Immunology

Immunophenotypically, M5-AML variably express myeloid (CD13, CD33) and monocytic (CD11b, CD11c) markers. Cells may aberrantly express B cells marker CD20 and the NK marker CD56. Monoblasts may be positive for CD34.

Risk Factors

AML-M5 is thought to be associated with exposure to epidophyllotoxins.

References



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