Acanthosis nigricans

Jump to: navigation, search

WikiDoc Resources for Acanthosis nigricans

Articles

Most recent articles on Acanthosis nigricans

Most cited articles on Acanthosis nigricans

Review articles on Acanthosis nigricans

Articles on Acanthosis nigricans in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Acanthosis nigricans

Images of Acanthosis nigricans

Photos of Acanthosis nigricans

Podcasts & MP3s on Acanthosis nigricans

Videos on Acanthosis nigricans

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Acanthosis nigricans

Bandolier on Acanthosis nigricans

TRIP on Acanthosis nigricans

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Acanthosis nigricans at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Acanthosis nigricans

Clinical Trials on Acanthosis nigricans at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Acanthosis nigricans

NICE Guidance on Acanthosis nigricans

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Acanthosis nigricans

CDC on Acanthosis nigricans

Books

Books on Acanthosis nigricans

News

Acanthosis nigricans in the news

Be alerted to news on Acanthosis nigricans

News trends on Acanthosis nigricans

Commentary

Blogs on Acanthosis nigricans

Definitions

Definitions of Acanthosis nigricans

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Acanthosis nigricans

Discussion groups on Acanthosis nigricans

Patient Handouts on Acanthosis nigricans

Directions to Hospitals Treating Acanthosis nigricans

Risk calculators and risk factors for Acanthosis nigricans

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Acanthosis nigricans

Causes & Risk Factors for Acanthosis nigricans

Diagnostic studies for Acanthosis nigricans

Treatment of Acanthosis nigricans

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Acanthosis nigricans

International

Acanthosis nigricans en Espanol

Acanthosis nigricans en Francais

Business

Acanthosis nigricans in the Marketplace

Patents on Acanthosis nigricans

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Acanthosis nigricans

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor-In-Chief: Ogheneochuko Ajari, MB.BS, MS [2], Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [3], Jesus Rosario Hernandez, M.D. [4]

Overview

Acanthosis nigricans is a brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin, usually present in the posterior and lateral folds of the neck, the axilla, groin, umbilicus, and other areas. Acanthosis nigricans generally occurs due to insulin spillover (from excessive production due to obesity or insulin resistance) onto the skin which results in abnormal skin growth The most common cause of acanthosis nigricans is insulin resistance, usually from type 2 diabetes mellitus.Involvement of mucous membranes is rare and suggests a coexisting malignant condition.[1]

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions which may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes


Causes by Organ System

Cardiovascular Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1, congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2
Chemical / poisoning No underlying causes
Dermatologic Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor disorders, melanoma, Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome, hyperpigmentation, congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1, congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2
Drug Side Effect Glucocorticoids, growth hormone therapy, insulin , niacin , oral contraceptives, protease inhibitors
Ear Nose Throat No underlying causes
Endocrine Acromegaly, Donohue syndrome, prediabetes, hypothyroidism, Addison's disease, hyperandrogenism, Bangstad syndrome, Cushing's disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance with acanthosis nigricans type A, familial partial lipodystrophy type 2, hyperthyroidism, insulin receptor defect, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor disorders, congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1, congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2
Environmental No underlying causes
Gastroenterologic Colon cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1, congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2
Genetic Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans, crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome, familial, FGFR3 mutation, severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans, Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome, Donohue syndrome, Bangstad syndrome, familial partial lipodystrophy type 2, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor disorders, congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1, congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2
Hematologic No underlying causes
Iatrogenic No underlying causes
Infectious Disease No underlying causes
Musculoskeletal / Ortho Acromegaly, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans, crouzonodermoskeletal syndrome, severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans, Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome, Donohue syndrome, Bangstad syndrome, familial partial lipodystrophy type 2, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1, congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2
Neurologic Hyperglycemia, severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans, Bangstad syndrome, congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2
Nutritional / Metabolic Obesity, metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor disorders, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, Bangstad syndrome, congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 1, congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2
Obstetric/Gynecologic Ovarian cancer, ovarian cyst, uterine cancer, breast cancer, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary syndrome
Oncologic Breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma, colon cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer
Opthalmologic No underlying causes
Overdose / Toxicity No underlying causes
Psychiatric No underlying causes
Pulmonary Lung cancer
Renal / Electrolyte Addison's disease, Cushing's disease, hyperglycemia, hyperandrogenism
Rheum / Immune / Allergy No underlying causes
Sexual No underlying causes
Trauma No underlying causes
Urologic Prostate cancer
Miscellaneous No underlying causes

Causes in Alphabetical Order


Diagnosis

Physicians can usually diagnose acanthosis nigricans by simply looking at a patient's skin. A skin biopsy may be needed in unusual cases. If no clear cause of acanthosis nigricans is obvious, it may be necessary to search for one. Blood tests, an endoscopy, or x-rays may be required to eliminate the possibility of diabetes or cancer as the cause.

Physical Examination

Skin

Neck
Axillae

Pseudoacanthosis Nigricans

Neck

Treatment

People with acanthosis nigricans should be screened for diabetes and, although rare, cancer. Controlling blood glucose levels through exercise and diet often improves symptoms.

Prognosis

Acanthosis nigricans often fades if the underlying cause can be determined and treated appropriately.

References

  1. Schnopp C, Baumstark J (2007). "Oral acanthosis nigricans.". N Engl J Med. 357 (9): e10. PMID 17761587. 
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 "Dermatology Atlas". 

External Links


Linked-in.jpg