Central pontine myelinolysis causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Mohamadmostafa Jahansouz M.D.[2]

Overview

The most common cause of central pontine myelinolysis is rapid correction(>48-hours duration) of hyponatremia in patients with the history of prolonged hyponatremia. Other causes of central pontine myelinolysis may include: Lengthened orthotopic liver transplantation, hypophosphatemia secondary to refeeding syndrome, deficiencies in neuronal/glial cell energy supply and utilization which produce glial cell apoptosis and thus the clinical syndrome of central pontine myelinolysis and prolonged ischemia.

Causes

Common Causes

The most common cause of central pontine myelinolysis is rapid correction(>48-hours duration) of hyponatremia in patients with the history of prolonged hyponatremia.[1][2]

Other causes of central pontine myelinolysis may include:[3][4][5][6]

References

  1. Seliger S, Kestenbaum B (2018). "Commentary on Treatment of Severe Hyponatremia". Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 13 (4): 650–651. doi:10.2215/CJN.13381217. PMC 5969468. PMID 29295827.
  2. Yu J, Zheng SS, Liang TB, Shen Y, Wang WL, Ke QH (2004). "Possible causes of central pontine myelinolysis after liver transplantation". World J Gastroenterol. 10 (17): 2540–3. doi:10.3748/wjg.v10.i17.2540. PMC 4572157. PMID 15300900.
  3. Norenberg MD (2010). "Central pontine myelinolysis: historical and mechanistic considerations". Metab Brain Dis. 25 (1): 97–106. doi:10.1007/s11011-010-9175-0. PMID 20182780.
  4. Yamashita C, Shigeto H, Maeda N, Torii T, Ohyagi Y, Kira J (2015). "A Case of Central Pontine Myelinolysis Caused by Hypophosphatemia Secondary to Refeeding Syndrome". Case Rep Neurol. 7 (3): 196–203. doi:10.1159/000440711. PMC 4637517. PMID 26557081.
  5. Ashrafian H, Davey P (2001). "A review of the causes of central pontine myelinosis: yet another apoptotic illness?". Eur J Neurol. 8 (2): 103–9. PMID 11430268.
  6. Giannetti AV, Pittella JE (1993). "Ischemic and hemorrhagic necrosis of the pons with anatomical location similar to that of central pontine myelinolysis in a chronic alcoholic patient". Clin Neuropathol. 12 (3): 156–9. PMID 8324964.

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