Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder natural history, complications and prognosis
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder Microchapters
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If left untreated, patients with ADHD may experience negative social consequences, such as isolation from and difficulty communicating with friends and loved ones. Patients are unlikely to experience any physical problems as a direct result of ADHD.
- The symptoms of ADHD usually develop in the first decade of life, and can appear as early as between the ages of 3 and 6. The symptoms of ADHD often continue through adolescence and adulthood. The average age of onset of ADHD is 7 years.
- Military recruits who do not require medications to finish high school or to hold a job may have similar military performance as recruits without ADHD.
- If left untreated, ADHD may cause negative social consequences, such as isolation from and difficulty communicating with friends and loved ones. ADHD patients are unlikely to experience any physical problems as a direct result of ADHD.
- Without treatment, the patient will likely continue exhibiting symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention, which can bear negative academic, professional, and social consequences. Adolescents with untreated ADHD have a higher incidence of drug abuse and law-breaking than healthy children.
- There are significant adverse socioeconomic outcomes from ADHD. Young adults with ADHD have more financial dependence on family members and public assistance. They may earn $543,000-$616,000 less over their lifetimes. Teenage males are more likely to have automobile accidents.
- Employees with ADHD may experience less meaningfulness at work.
- Mortality may be increased.f>
Employees with ADHD may have improved idea generation at work, but this is offset by less feeling of meaningfulness at work.
- Complications that can develop as a result of ADHD are poor grades for schoolchildren or poor progress reports/possible termination for working adults.
- Complications that can develop as a result of the treatment of ADHD are elevated heart rate, anorexia, agitation, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, lethargy, insomnia, and irritability. Additionally, the SNRI Atomoxetine is associated with suicidal ideation in children and adolescents.
- The prognosis of ADHD is poor with treatment. Without treatment, ADHD often results in negative social and academic/professional consequences. Approximately 70% of patients who are diagnosed with ADHD as children continue to experience severe symptoms throughout adolescence and sometimes into adulthood.
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- "DrugBank: Methylphenidate".
- "DrugBank: Guanfacine".
- "DrugBank: Clonidine".
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