Xanthine dehydrogenase

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Identifiers
Aliases
External IDsGeneCards: [1]
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

n/a

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RefSeq (protein)

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Location (UCSC)n/an/a
PubMed searchn/an/a
Wikidata
View/Edit Human
xanthine dehydrogenase
Identifiers
EC number1.17.1.4
CAS number9054-84-6
Databases
IntEnzIntEnz view
BRENDABRENDA entry
ExPASyNiceZyme view
KEGGKEGG entry
MetaCycmetabolic pathway
PRIAMprofile
PDB structuresRCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum
Gene OntologyAmiGO / QuickGO

Xanthine dehydrogenase, also known as XDH, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the XDH gene.[1][2]

Function

Xanthine dehydrogenase belongs to the group of molybdenum-containing hydroxylases involved in the oxidative metabolism of purines. The enzyme is a homodimer. Xanthine dehydrogenase can be converted to xanthine oxidase by reversible sulfhydryl oxidation or by irreversible proteolytic modification.[1]

Xanthine dehydrogenase catalyzes the following chemical reaction:

xanthine + NAD+ + H2O urate + NADH + H+

The three substrates of this enzyme are xanthine, NAD+, and H2O, whereas its three products are urate, NADH, and H+.

This enzyme participates in purine metabolism.

Nomenclature

This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, to be specific, those acting on CH or CH2 groups with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is xanthine:NAD+ oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include NAD+-xanthine dehydrogenase, xanthine-NAD+ oxidoreductase, xanthine/NAD+ oxidoreductase, and xanthine oxidoreductase.

Clinical significance

Defects in xanthine dehydrogenase cause xanthinuria, may contribute to adult respiratory stress syndrome, and may potentiate influenza infection through an oxygen metabolite-dependent mechanism.[1]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Entrez Gene: XDH xanthine dehydrogenase". Retrieved October 25, 2012.
  2. Ichida K, Amaya Y, Noda K, Minoshima S, Hosoya T, Sakai O, Shimizu N, Nishino T (Nov 1993). "Cloning of the cDNA encoding human xanthine dehydrogenase (oxidase): structural analysis of the protein and chromosomal location of the gene". Gene. 133 (2): 279–84. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(93)90652-J. PMID 8224915.

Further reading


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