Vitamin D deficiency risk factors
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Important risk factors for vitamin D deficiency that can not be changed are non-western ethnicity, older age and colder seasons. Sedentary lifestyle and less sun exposure play a significant role in increasing vitamin D deficiency.
The risk factors of vitamin D deficiency can be categorized into three main groups; non-modifiable risk factors, modifiable risk factors, and also factors that are related to mothers' conditions.
Non-modifiable risk factors
- Ethnicity: non-western ethnicity like African, Asian, Turkish, and Moroccan children are at greater risks than children of western ethnic background.
- Dark skin color
- Season: late fall, winter, and spring
- Geography: higher latitude, lower altitude, cloudy weather
Modifiable risk factors
- Life style including sedentary behavior, high child television watching, and less outdoor activities
- Less sun exposure including use of sunscreen or clothing
- Being underweight
- Less milk drinking
- Not taking vitamin D supplements
- Exclusive breastfeeding
Maternal risk factors
- Lower maternal age
- Lower household income
- Higher maternal BMI
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