User:Kleinzach/My sandbox

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composed with continuous music

Wagner remaining



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{{mergeto|Antonio Sacchini}}


{{Copyedit|date=June 2007}}

{{cleanup-date|April 2006}}



Welcome to Wikipedia from the Opera Project

Hello Kleinzach/My sandbox, welcome to Wikipedia!

I noticed nobody had said hi yet... Hi!

If you feel a change is needed, feel free to make it yourself! Wikipedia is a wiki, so anyone (yourself included) can edit any article by following the Edit link. Wikipedia convention is to be bold and not be afraid of making mistakes. If you're not sure how editing works, have a look at How to edit a page, or try out the Sandbox to test your editing skills.

You might like some of these links and tips:

If, for some reason, you are unable to fix a problem yourself, feel free to ask someone else to do it. If you are stuck, and looking for help, please come to the Wikipedia Boot Camp, where experienced Wikipedians can answer any queries you have! Or, you can just type {{helpme}} on your user page, and someone will show up shortly to answer your questions. Wikipedia has a vibrant community of contributors who have a wide range of skills and specialties, and many of them would be glad to help. As well as the wiki community pages there are IRC Channels, where you are more than welcome to ask for assistance.

If you have any questions, feel free to ask me on my talk page. Thanks and happy editing! -- Kleinzach 00:46, 31 July 2007 (UTC)

WikiProject Films roll call

Hey fellow Wikipedian! Your username is listed on the WikiProject Films participants list, but we are unsure as to which editors are still active on the project. If you still consider yourself an active WP:FILM editor, please add your name to the Active Members list. You may also wish to add {{User WikiProject Films}} to your userpage, if you haven't done so already. We also have several task forces that you may be interested in joining as well.

Also, elections for Project Coordinators are currently in sign-up phase. If you would be interested in running, or would like to ask questions of the candidates, please take a look. You can see more information on the positions at Wikipedia:WikiProject Films/Coordinators. Thanks and happy editing!

An automatic notification by BrownBot 22:52, 15 September 2007 (UTC)


Wikipedia:WikiProject Films/Coordinators/Election 1


Notable operas

Is every opera by every famous composer automatically notable? Some editors seem to believe that there must be an article on every work by a famous composer, irrespective of whether it still exists, was ever completed, is ever performed etc. What should we do about this? The problem - as we found with the article on Verdi's Re Lear is that you can verify something that doesn't exist if the people involved are famous enough.

Viola has now been fed into the system with a navigation box, role table etc. as if it were a real opera that people might find in an opera house. -- Kleinzach 10:25, 4 September 2007 (UTC)

I've been in favour of listing complete works on each individual composer's article, in order to show career development etc. (Only important works lacking article indicated in red.)

Unfortunately these works are being fed into the system added to The opera corpus, created as articles and put through the process with navigation boxes, role tables etc. There seems to be a believe that every p[ice of work by a major compoesr should have its own article.


Krenek: Jonny spielt auf - Vienna State Opera Orchestra

Sources for articles on contemporary singers

With the caveat that journalists can also be sloppy about checking facts, on the whole, I find the best independent sources for contemporary singers tend to be mainstream press or journal articles. The Guardian (UK), The New York Times, The San Francisco Chronicle, The International Herald Tribune, and Time Magazine all have extensive archives that are largely free (except for certain NYT articles). To access their contents quickly, go to Google and type the following in the search box:

  • "Singer's name"
  • "Singer's Name"
  • "Singer's Name"
  • "Singer's Name"
  • "Singer's Name" is also useful, although some of their content is premium. (You can adjust the search to look for free content only)


Image:XIX century print, Piazza della Scala, Milano.jpg

Metastasio Libretto pages

We don't usually have seperate articles for libretti. Obviously they are normally covered by articles on the individual operas to which they were set. However the libretti of Metastasio are exceptional because of the large number of settings (sometimes thirty, forty or fifty of them). At the moment there appear to be four of them: Artaserse, Demofoonte, L'Olimpiade, Didone abbandonata.

IMO the Metastasio articles are useful, but at the moment they are haphazardly categorized and not very accessible. Should we create a new category for them, called Category: Opera libretti ? Is this a good idea or do we, perhaps, need a different approach? -- Kleinzach 09:38, 24 August 2007 (UTC)

Opera by year

Opera terms

cantilena - a lyrical melody line, obviously meant to be sung or played "cantabile."

hauptstimme - this refers to the principal musical material of a work. In the operas of Schoenberg or Berg, early 20th century German composers, the main melodies are marked with an "H" to indicate that the composers considered those the principal tunes.


maestro - a title of courtesy, given, especially in Italy, to conductors, composers and directors; translation (from the Italian), "Master."

marking - the practice used by many singers to save their voices in rehearsals; singers will sing in what seems to be a mere whisper, or transpose the vocal lines so that they don't have to sing extremely high or low notes. This is done as a vocal protection--singing too strenuously, or without getting the voice properly warmed up can lead to vocal strain and severe throat problems.

PATTER SONG - A song or aria in which the character sings as many words as possible in the shortest time.

parlando - literally, "speaking"; this Italian term directs the singer to imitate speech in singing. The "patter songs" of Gilbert and Sullivan operettas frequently employ a great deal of parlando singing.

PIT - A sunken area in front of the stage where the members of the orchestra sit.

prova - rehearsal, from the Italian word for "test"; often in Italy, one hears of a "prova generale,"which means the final dress rehearsal. In Germany, a rehearsal is called "probe" (PROE beh); in German houses, one frequently hears of a sitzprobe (a rehearsal with orchestra where the singers sing seated on chairs at the front of the stage instead of moving about) or wandelprobe (where the singers actually go through the motions of their acting while the orchestra plays the music) or generalprobe (which is, in essence, the last dress rehearsal).

recitativo accompagnato - is accompanied by the full orchestra. The introduction to Donna Anna's "Or sai chi l'onore" in Don Giovanni is an example of the"accompagnato" style, where the orchestral sonorities are capable of varying the mood of the narration more than the simple harpsichord accompaniment could.

recitativo secco - is accompanied by the continuo instruments. Numerous passages abound in the operas of Mozart and Rossini of the "secco" style.


SCENA (SCHAY-nah) (Italian) - Literally a scene. A dramatic episode which consists of a variety of number types with a common themes. A typical scena might consist of a recitative, a cavatina and a cabaletta.

sotto voce - a musical direction which asks the performer to sing, or play "under the voice," or in a subdued manner. Singing sotto voce can be compared to declaiming in a stage whisper and can be very effective in a large theatre.

trill Tremolo

Project logo?

Singer checks

Best independent sources for contemporary singers: To access their contents quickly, go to Google and type the following in the search box: "Singer's name" "Singer's Name" "Singer's Name" "Singer's Name" "Singer's Name"


As already noted, I have concerns about the introduction - also the piecemeal word by word, concertina-style (expansion then contraction, contraction then expansion) way it has been edited. It would have been better to discuss the issues off-page before editing, or to have circulated a draft for people to edit in turn, aiming at a synthesis acceptable to all intestersted parties. (I note that the introduction has been edited X times in the last Y days.)

Why is this important?

We have had several instances recently when non-opera contributors (in Cfd etc.) have commented on the nature of opera in relation to categorization, proposed deletions etc. We need to have an introduction that answers these and other similar questions:

  • Operetta isn't opera, is it?
  • Why do you include works that have spoken dialogue? They aren't operas are they?
  • Operas have recitatives between the arias, don't they?
  • Operas are through-composed (i.e have continuous music) aren't they?
  • Why don't you list women composers? (accusation of sexism)
  • Why don't use you list Beijing opera? After all it is opera!
  • Why don't you rename Opera as Western Classical Opera? (accusation of Eurocentrism)
  • Why does opera use amplification. Is it because opera is out of date?
  • Why don't use you list Rock and Rap opera? (accusation of elitism/snobbishness)

It would save us all time if we could point to agreed text that answered these questions. "It's more complicated than you realize!" is not a convincing answer.

Richard Strauss addressed the problem of the nature of opera in Capriccio. Olivier, a poet, and Flamand, a composer debate the rival claims of music and drama. Olivier believes Prima le parole, doppia la musica. Flamand insists Prima le musica, doppia la parole.

Right. Back to Basics: I would like to look at the definition of opera first I'd like to first distinguish between what is essential, what is normal (usual), and what is optional in different forms and genres of opera.


  • performance: an ephemeral event lasting for a period of time
  • audience: at least of one (precedent: Ludwig of Bavaria)
  • human voice: but not always words, there may not be many examples of pure vocalise in opera (e.g. Einstein on the Beach and Chaya Czernowin's Pnima...ins Innere) but there are plenty of examples of words mixed with vocalization.
  • (instrumental) music: Opera is an abbreviation of 'opera in musica'. Music is always present even in the most austere of chamber operas (e.g. Curlew River).
  • stage: a representational space distinct from a concert/recital platform. (There are a few radio or television operas Il prigioniero, Owen Wingrave, however they are really exceptions that prove the rule by imitating opera forms in order to avoid being identified as films or audio recordings.)


  • orchestra: a group of musicians off-stage
  • conductor: music director
  • singing: a style of voice production derived from Mozart (and earlier) with voices defined by vocal ranges.
  • drama/acting: performers assuming and acting stage roles
  • text/narrative: most operas tell a story expressed through a text and action seen on the stage
  • stage lighting
  • costumes
  • scenery
  • no artificial amplification: ensemble and musical precision (up to now) have required natural sound. Nixon in China is an exception but the composer gives very precise instructions about amplification in order to achieve particular effects.


  • dancing: never very far away in opera. Grand operas contain ballets, and there is the hybred form of Opéra-ballet. Even 'straight' operas without ballet sections can contain a lot of dance. Some operas can be danced (as well as sung) in long sections, e.g. the crowd scenes in Turandot, or the witches in Macbeth.
  • actors: non-singing actors, mimes and extras. Notably in Verdi operas.


According to this analysis, Music is essential but not drama (in the sense of a story being acted on stage). Please note that [[Drama}] and Theatre]] are both problem areas on WP so we have to make our own definitions of what they mean.


Opera is one of the performing arts (alongside music, drama and dance), and its special character derives from the combination of elements of the others, as well as visual effects conveyed by scenery, costumes, and lighting,

Opera is invariably live, performed in a specially-equipped opera house. The sound is unamplified in order to feature the beauty of the trained operatic voice. There are many different genres of opera and the scale of production varies, however performance typically involves artists, such as singers, instrumentalists and often dancers and actors, working together with each other. Normally an orchestra directed by a conductor accompanies the singers. The opera world is international - in contrast to spoken theatre - and Italian, German, French, English, Russian and Czech etc. works are performed world-wide in their original languages, while artists travel from country to country performing.

Opera emerged in Italy around the year 1600 and has always been intimately associated with the Western classical music tradition, while developing its own unique musical and dramatic styles and conventions. Comparable art forms from various other parts of the world, many of them ancient in origin, exist and are also sometimes called "opera" by analogy, usually prefaced with an adjective indicating the region (for example, Chinese opera).

Essential: performance human voice music audience stage

Normal; orchestra conductor operatic singing drama/acting text//narrative stage lighting costumes scenery

Optional: dancers actors extras


Bot operators and AWB-using editors are asked to consult editors (on the project talk page) about projects affecting opera pages. It's essential that this is done before starting to process pages. Project participants will be happy to help and advise so that operations go smoothly and work is mutually productive.


Gastropods and Gastro-enterology, Lepidoptera or Cepalopods? pharmacologyor nephrology? Fluid dynamics or banksia

CD/DVD covers

Marcelo Álvarez, Juan Diego Flórez, Beniamino Gigli, Salvatore Licitra, Rolando Villazón,

remove non-free image, see Wikipedia:Non-free content


Wikipedia:WikiProject Infoboxes

John Tavener,

<!-- please do not add an infobox, per [[Wikipedia:WikiProject Composers#Lead section]]-->

<!-- please do not add an infobox, per [[Wikipedia:WikiProject Opera#Infoboxes]]-->

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Claudio Abbado, Lorin Maazel, Herbert von Karajan, Felix Weingartner, Clemens Krauss, Valery Gergiev, Colin Davis,

Done: André Previn

[[Image:Callas.jpg|210px|thumb|Maria Callas, 1960s]]

I would be happy to participate in a removal campaign. Cheers, Opus33 16:25, 7 September 2007 (UTC)

Articles needed

Théâtre des Menus-Plaisirs, Théâtre de la Gaîté

Librettists: Hector-Jonathan Crémieux, Etiene Tréfeu, Louis-Adolphe Jaime,

Version 1.0

Wikipedia:Version 1.0 Editorial Team


Wolf-Ferrari, Ermanno by John C G Waterhouse, in 'The New Grove Dictionary of Opera', ed. Stanley Sadie (London, 1992) ISBN 0-333-73432-7

Wolf-Ferrari, Ermanno by Albi Rosenthal, in 'The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians', ed. Stanley Sadie (London, 1980) ISBN 0333231112


  • Warrack, John and West, Ewan (1992), The Oxford Dictionary of Opera, 782 pages, ISBN 0-19-869164-5
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Opera, by John Warrack and Ewan West (1992), 782 pages, ISBN 0-19-869164-5


  • {{opera-stub}}
  • {{opera-singer-stub}}
  • {{composer-stub}}

European opera houses

  • {{euro-struct-stub}}


Wikipedia:Requests for comment



The basic problem in my view is that we have editors who don't read the articles producing little boxes so that other people don't have to read them either.

Our immediate problem is that xxx thinks it's reasonable to disregard the wishes of the editors of the relevant articles (e.g. [[x] and y). I don't see how we can discuss the infobox issue while he and others force their opinions on us. --Kleinzach 10:29, 25 April 2007 (UTC)



{{Opera | auto=yes | class=Stub}}

{{WikiProjectBanners |1={{opera}} |2={{WPBiography |living=no |class=Stub |priority= |auto=yes |musician-work-group=yes }} }}

{{hidden infoboxes|info={{opera}} {{WPBiography |living=no |class= |priority= }} }}


Wikipedia:Infobox colours
Wikipedia:List of infoboxes
Wikipedia:Navigational templates
Wikipedia:To-do list

Infobox template:



Wikipedia:Only make links that are relevant to the context


#REDIRECT [[La bohème]]

WP Proposed deletion

Wikipedia:Proposed deletion


{{Fact|date=February 2007}}

<ref>Haltrecht, p.26/39</ref>

Other languages

  • [[ca:Franco Alfano]]
  • [[de:Franco Alfano]]
  • [[gl:Franco Alfano]]
  • [[nl:Franco Alfano]]
  • [[ja:フランコ・アルファーノ]]

Article assessment

Wikipedia:WikiProject Writing systems/Assessment

Mediation cabal

Wikipedia:Mediation Cabal



Wikipedia:Accuracy dispute

Wikipedia:Uploading images

Wikipedia:Template messages/Cleanup

Wikipedia:Userboxes/Regional Politics

[[Category:Wikipedia userboxes]]


User edit count/Cat scan

3 September 07: 17,008 edits

Category scheme


Arts by country | Genres by country

Literature (by language | by nationality)

Poetry | Drama | Novels | Comics | Essays, Sagas, Epics etc.

Visual arts (by region | by nationality)

Painting | Drawing | Printmaking | Sculpture | Ceramics | Architecture | Graphic design | Typography | Industrial design | Photography | Film | Comics | Landscape design etc.

Music (Music by continent | by nationality)

Classical | Popular | Folk | Jazz | Reggae | Rock | Blues, Country, Electronic etc.

Performing arts (by country)

Theatre | Opera | Dance | Variety entertainment | Chinese opera | also Kabuki, Nō etc.


1. This scheme does not use sub-categories such as: Fine arts, Applied arts, Spatial arts, Plastic arts etc etc, which may be difficult to define.

2. The list of items in each of the four main sections is open-ended. For example, Kabuki currently has only one article, but if there is sufficient interest and individual articles on Kabuki plays are written, then it could and probably should be added.

Navigation boxes

Template:Opera genres
Template:Opera lists
Template:Opera terms
Template:Opera categories
Template:Opera categories (thin)
Template:Russian opera

Soft redirect

This category is located at [[:Category:{{{1}}}]].

Note: This category page should be empty, with all of the articles contained being under [[:Category:{{{1}}}]]. See this page for more information.

This template adds categories to Wikipedia category redirects.

sq:Stampa:Kategori e zhvendosur


Web colors

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<poem> Va, pensiero, sull'ale dorate; va, ti posa sui clivi, sui colli, ove olezzano tepide e molli l'aure dolci del suolo natal! </poem>

<poem> Fly, thoughts, on wings of gold; go settle upon the slopes and the hills, where, soft and mild, the sweet air of our native land smells fragrant! </poem>

Large table


xxx xx, 18xx,

French articles

Theatres:Théâtre des Variétés, Théâtre de la Gaîté

Singers: Zulma Bouffar, José Dupuis, Juliette Simon-Girard


Category:Wikipedians in Japan

User Hokkaidō

Opera Template

A • B • C


Die Sänger auf dem grünen Hügel, LP-Kassette, EMI Singers on the Green Hill')

Les Introuvables du Chant Wagnérien (Wagner Singing on Record) EMI CD incl. Nissen, Endrèze, Marta Fuchs, Beckmann, Rethberg, Nilsson, Hotter, Schorr, Thill, Germaine Martinelli, Bockelmann, Melchoir, Schumann, Ralf, Lemnitz, Müller, Lorenz, Reining, Janssen, Hüsch, Flagstad, Pertile, Singher, Lawrence, Spani, Lotte Lehmann, Klose, Wittrisch, Roswaenge, Leider, Seinemeyer, Lubin, Kipnis, Journet, Olszewska, Schipper, Laubenthal, Austral, Larsén-Todsen, Widdop, List, Weber, etc. (Germany) 4-EMI Mono / Stereo 64008, Slipcase Edition.

Composer of the Month

Here are some ideas/previous suggestions for the XXX composer(s) of the month:


Past (started March 2006): 'American composers', Auber, Bellini, Donizetti, Gluck, Grétry, Handel, Hans Werner Henze, Lully, Leoncavallo, Mascagni, Meyerbeer, Mozart, Offenbach, Rameau, Antonio Sacchini, Antonio Salieri, Giuseppe Sarti, Weber, 'Women composers', Verdi,

Next next month: Bedřich Smetana, Antonín Dvořák, Leoš Janáček, Francesco Cavalli, Kurt Weill and Ernst Krenek, Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)