Transient tachypnea of the newborn

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Transient tachypnea of the newborn
ICD-10 P22.1
ICD-9 770.6
DiseasesDB 32373
MedlinePlus 007233

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTNB, or "Transitory tachypnea of newborn") is a respiratory problem seen in the newborn shortly after delivery. It consists of a period of rapid breathing (more than the for newborns normal 40-60 times a minute). It is likely due to retained lung fluid, and common in 35+ week gestation babies who are delivered by caesarian section without labour. Usually, this condition resolves over 24-48 hours. Treatment is supportive and may include supplemental oxygen and antibiotics. The chest X-Ray shows hyperinflation of the lungs including prominent pulmonary vasular markings, flattening of the diaphragm, and fluid in the horizontal fissure.

Pathophysiology

  • 1. Due to the higher incidence of TTN in newborns delivered by caesarean section, it has been postulated that TTN could result from a delayed absorption of fetal lung fluid from the pulmonary lymphatic system. The increased fluid in the lungs leads to increased airway resistance and reduced lung compliance.
  • 2. Pulmonary immaturity has also been proposed as a causative factor. Levels of phosphatidylglycerol (an indicator of lung maturity) was found to be negative in certain newborns.
  • 3. Mild surfactant deficiency has also been suggested as a causative factor.

Diagnosis

Chest X-ray

  • Finds of pulmonary edema: airspace opacities, prominent interstitial markings, prominent and indistinct pulmonary vasculature, pleural effusions, and cardiomegaly.
  • Lungs are normal to increased in volume.

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