The Physical Examination in Cardiovascular Disease:The Lungs

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

The cardinal symptoms of cardiac disease are shown below. Click on the link in blue to read about a component of the patient history in detail.

Apnea

Apnea, apnoea, or apnœa (Greek απνοια, from α-, privative, πνεειν, to breathe) is a technical term for suspension of external breathing. During apnea there is no movement of the muscles of respiration and the volume of the lungs initially remains unchanged.

Cheyne-Stokes Respirations

This is a pattern of breathing with a crescendo – decrescendo variation in tidal volume separated by periods of central apnea or hypopnea.

Crackles

Crackles, also referred to as rales, are nonmusical discontinuous sounds that resemble the sound of velcro being torn apart. Crackles are caused by the opening of collapsed airways. Crackles may be either coarse or fine.

Pulmonary Edema

This is accumulation of fluid in the lung manifested on physical examination by rales.

Rales

Rales, also referred to as crackles, are nonmusical discontinuous sounds that resemble the sound of velcro being torn apart. Rales are caused by the opening of collapsed airways. Rales may be either coarse or fine.




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