Tacrine

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Tacrine
Tacrine2DACS.png
Tacrine3Dan.gif
Clinical data
Pregnancy
category
Routes of
administration
Oral, rectal
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • S4 (Au), POM (UK), ℞-only (U.S.)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability2.4–36% (oral)
Protein binding55%
MetabolismHepatic (CYP1A2)
Elimination half-life2–4 hours
ExcretionRenal
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
E number{{#property:P628}}
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Chemical and physical data
FormulaC13H14N2
Molar mass198.264 g/mol

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Overview

Tacrine is a parasympathomimetic and a centrally acting cholinesterase inhibitor (anticholinesterase). It was the first centrally-acting cholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, and was marketed under the trade name Cognex. Tacrine was first synthesised by Adrien Albert at the University of Sydney.

Clinical use

Tacrine was the prototypical cholinesterase inhibitor for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Studies have found that it may have a small beneficial effect on cognition and other clinical measures, though adequate study data is limited and the clinical relevance of these findings is unclear.[1][2]

The use of tacrine is limited by poor oral bioavailability, the necessity for four-times daily dosing, and considerable adverse drug reactions (including nausea, diarrhea, urinary incontinence and hepatotoxicity) such that few patients could tolerate therapeutic doses.[3]

Other newer cholinesterase inhibitors, such as donepezil, are now preferred over tacrine.

Overdosage/Toxicity

As stated above, overdosage of tacrine may giva rise to severe side effects such as nausea, vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, collapse, and colvulsions. Tertiary anticholinergics, such as atropine, may be used as an antidote for overdose.

Major form of metabolism is in the liver via hydroxylation of benzylic carbon by CYP450. This forms the major metabolite 1-hydroxy-tacrine (velnacrine) which is still active.

References

  1. Qizilbash N, Whitehead A, Higgins J, et al. Cholinesterase inhibition for Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis of the tacrine trials. JAMA 1998;280(20):1777-82. PMID 9842955
  2. Rang HP, Dale MM, Ritter JM, Moore PK. Pharmacology, 5th edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 2003.
  3. Sweetman S, editor. Martindale: the complete drug reference, 34th ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2004. ISBN 0-85369-550-4

See also



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