Ischemic stroke causes

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1];Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Maryam Hadipour, M.D.[2],Seyedmahdi Pahlavani, M.D. [3]Aysha Anwar, M.B.B.S[4],Tarek Nafee, M.D. [5],Sara Mehrsefat, M.D. [6]


There are several causes for stroke. Some may cause hemorrhage and some causes ischemia. Among all of them there are several lethal causes which we need to be more cautious about them.


The following table lists causes for stroke.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Disease Lethal causes Common causes Less common causes
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) Emboli from cardiac source (mostly secondary to AF) Arterial dissection
Ischemic stroke
Intracerebral hemorrhage ---
Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Rupture of an aneurysm

Rupture of an aneurysm

Subdural hemorrhage Rupture of bridging vessels Trauma (motor vehicle accidents, falls, and assaults)
Epidural hemorrhage Rupture of middle meningeal arteries Trauma (motor vehicle accidents, falls, and assaults)
Intraparenchymal hemorrhage --- Trauma (motor vehicle accidents, falls, and assaults) Rupture of an aneurysm

Arteriovenous malformation

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) ---


  1. Kishimoto M, Arakawa KC (2003). "A patient with wegener granulomatosis and intraventricular hemorrhage". J Clin Rheumatol. 9 (6): 354–8. doi:10.1097/01.rhu.0000089967.51779.d7. PMID 17043443.
  2. Challa VR, Richards F, Davis CH (1981). "Intraventricular hemorrhage from pituitary apoplexy". Surg Neurol. 16 (5): 360–1. PMID 7336321.
  3. Flint AC, Roebken A, Singh V (2008). "Primary intraventricular hemorrhage: yield of diagnostic angiography and clinical outcome". Neurocrit Care. 8 (3): 330–6. doi:10.1007/s12028-008-9070-2. PMID 18320145.
  4. Fukutake T (2011). "Cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CARASIL): from discovery to gene identification". J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 20 (2): 85–93. doi:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2010.11.008. PMID 21215656.
  5. Meretoja A, Strbian D, Putaala J, Curtze S, Haapaniemi E, Mustanoja S; et al. (2012). "SMASH-U: a proposal for etiologic classification of intracerebral hemorrhage". Stroke. 43 (10): 2592–7. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.661603. PMID 22858729.
  6. Hart, Robert G., Bradley S. Boop, and David C. Anderson. "Oral anticoagulants and intracranial hemorrhage facts and hypotheses." Stroke 26.8 (1995): 1471-1477.
  7. Knudsen, Katherine A., et al. "Clinical diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy: validation of the Boston criteria." Neurology 56.4 (2001): 537-539.
  8. Lovelock, C. E., A. J. Molyneux, and P. M. Rothwell. "Change in incidence and aetiology of intracerebral haemorrhage in Oxfordshire, UK, between 1981 and 2006: a population-based study." The Lancet Neurology 6.6 (2007): 487-493.
  9. Rümke CL (1975). "Letter: Implications of the statement: No side effects were observed". N Engl J Med. 292 (7): 372–3. PMID 1117973.
  10. Hanley DF (2009). "Intraventricular hemorrhage: severity factor and treatment target in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage". Stroke. 40 (4): 1533–8. doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.535419. PMC 2744212. PMID 19246695.

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