Standard electrode potential (data page)

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The standard electrode potentials are electrode potentials of half cells at equilibrium. They can be used to determine the potential of an electrochemical cell or galvanic cell, or a position of equilibrium for an electrochemical (redox) reaction, or a direction in which an electrochemical reaction can (thermodynamically) proceed.

The values of standard electrode potentials are given in the table below in volts relative to the standard hydrogen electrode and are assembled from references [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8].

The values are for the following conditions:

  • the temperature of 298.15 K (25 °C),
  • the effective concentration of 1 mol/L for each aqueous species,
  • the partial pressure of 101.325 kPa (absolute) (1 atm, 1.01325 bar) for each gaseous reagent. This pressure is used because most literature data are still given for this value rather than for the current standard of 100 kPa,
  • the activity of unity for each pure solid, pure liquid, a species in a mercury amalgam, or for water (solvent).

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Legend: (s)–solid; (l)–liquid; (g)–gas; (aq)–aqueous (default for all charged species); (Hg) – amalgam.

Half-reaction (V) Ref.
Template:H Template:H
Template:H Template:HspN2(g) + H+ + e HN3(aq)  Template:Neg [6]
Li+ + e Li(s)  Template:Neg [4]
N2(g) + 4Template:HspH2O + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspNH2OH(aq) + 2Template:HspOH  Template:Neg [6]
Rb+ + e Rb(s)  Template:Neg [4]
K+ + e K(s)  Template:Neg
Cs+ + e Cs(s)  Template:Neg
Ba2+ + 2Template:Hspe Ba(s)  Template:Neg
Sr2+ + 2Template:Hspe Sr(s)  Template:Neg
Ra2+ + 2Template:Hspe Ra(s)  Template:Neg
Ca2+ + 2Template:Hspe Ca(s)  Template:Neg
Na+ + e Na(s)  Template:Neg
Mg2+ + 2Template:Hspe Mg(s)  Template:Neg
ZrO(OH)2(s) + H2O + 4Template:Hspe Zr(s) + 4OH  Template:Neg
Al(OH)4 + 3Template:Hspe Al(s) + 4Template:HspOH  Template:Neg
Al(OH)3(s) + 3Template:Hspe Al(s) + 3OH  Template:Neg
H2(g) + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspH  Template:Neg
Ac3+ + 3Template:Hspe Ac(s)  Template:Neg
Be2+ + 2Template:Hspe Be(s)  Template:Neg
U3+ + 3Template:Hspe U(s)  Template:Neg [7]
Al3+ + 3Template:Hspe Al(s)  Template:Neg
Ti2+ + 2Template:Hspe Ti(s)  Template:Neg
ZrO2(s) + 4Template:HspH+ + 4Template:Hspe Zr(s) + 2Template:HspH2O  Template:Neg
Zr4+ + 4Template:Hspe Zr(s)  Template:Neg
TiO(s) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe Ti(s) + H2O  Template:Neg
Ti2O3(s) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspTiO(s) + H2O  Template:Neg
Ti3+ + 3Template:Hspe Ti(s)  Template:Neg
Mn2+ + 2Template:Hspe Mn(s)  Template:Neg
Te(s) + 2Template:Hspe Te2−  Template:Neg [2]
V2+ + 2Template:Hspe V(s)  Template:Neg
Nb3+ + 3Template:Hspe Nb(s)  Template:Neg
Sn(s) + 4Template:HspH+ + 4Template:Hspe SnH4(g)  Template:Neg
SiO2(s) + 4Template:HspH+ + 4Template:Hspe Si(s) + 2Template:HspH2O  Template:Neg
B(OH)3(aq) + 3Template:HspH+ + 3Template:Hspe B(s) + 3Template:HspH2O  Template:Neg
TiO2+ + 2Template:HspH+ + 4Template:Hspe Ti(s) + H2O  Template:Neg
Bi(s) + 3Template:HspH+ + 3Template:Hspe BiH3  Template:Neg
Template:H2Template:HspH2O + 2Template:Hspe H2(g) + 2Template:HspOH  Template:Neg
Zn2+ + 2Template:Hspe Zn(s)  Template:Neg
Ta2O5(s) + 10Template:HspH+ + 10Template:Hspe 2Template:HspTa(s) + 5Template:HspH2O  Template:Neg
Cr3+ + 3Template:Hspe Cr(s)  Template:Neg
Template:H[Au(CN)2] + e Au(s) +2Template:HspCN  Template:Neg
Ta3+ + 3Template:Hspe Ta(s)  Template:Neg
PbO(s) + H2O + 2Template:Hspe Pb(s) + 2Template:HspOH  Template:Neg
Template:H 2Template:HspTiO2(s) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe Ti2O3(s) + H2O  Template:Neg
Ga3+ + 3Template:Hspe Ga(s)  Template:Neg
U4+ + e U3+  Template:Neg [7]
Template:H H3PO2(aq) + H+ + e P(s) + 2Template:HspH2O  Template:Neg
Template:H H3PO3(aq) + 3Template:HspH+ + 3Template:Hspe P(s) + 3H2O  Template:Neg
Template:H H3PO3(aq) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe H3PO2(aq) + H2O  Template:Neg
Fe2+ + 2Template:Hspe Fe(s)  Template:Neg
Template:H 2CO2(g) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe HOOCCOOH(aq)  Template:Neg
Cr3+ + e Cr2+  Template:Neg
Cd2+ + 2Template:Hspe Cd(s)  Template:Neg
GeO2(s) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe GeO(s) + H2O  Template:Neg
Cu2O(s) + H2O + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspCu(s) + 2Template:HspOH  Template:Neg [5]
PbSO4(s) + 2Template:Hspe Pb(s) + SO42−  Template:Neg [5]
PbSO4(s) + 2Template:Hspe Pb(Hg) + SO42−  Template:Neg [5]
Eu3+ + e Eu2+  Template:Neg [7]
In3+ + 3Template:Hspe In(s)  Template:Neg
Tl+ + e Tl(s)  Template:Neg
Ge(s) + 4Template:HspH+ + 4e GeH4(g)  Template:Neg
Co2+ + 2Template:Hspe Co(s)  Template:Neg
Template:H H3PO4(aq) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe H3PO3(aq) + H2O  Template:Neg
V3+ + e V2+  Template:Neg
Ni2+ + 2Template:Hspe Ni(s)  Template:Neg
As(s) + 3Template:HspH+ + 3Template:Hspe AsH3(g)  Template:Neg
MoO2(s) + 4Template:HspH+ + 4Template:Hspe Mo(s) + 2Template:HspH2O  Template:Neg
Si(s) + 4Template:HspH+ + 4Template:Hspe SiH4(g)  Template:Neg
Sn2+ + 2Template:Hspe Sn(s)  Template:Neg
O2(g) + H+ + e HO2•(aq)  Template:Neg
Pb2+ + 2Template:Hspe Pb(s)  Template:Neg
WO2(s) + 4Template:HspH+ + 4Template:Hspe W(s) + 2Template:HspH2O  Template:Neg
Template:H CO2(g) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe HCOOH(aq)  Template:Neg
Se(s) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe H2Se(g)  Template:Neg
Template:H CO2(g) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe CO(g) + H2O  Template:Neg
SnO(s) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe Sn(s) + H2O  Template:Neg
SnO2(s) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe SnO(s) + H2O  Template:Neg
WO3(aq) + 6Template:HspH+ + 6Template:Hspe W(s) + 3Template:HspH2O  Template:Neg
P(s) + 3Template:HspH+ + 3Template:Hspe PH3(g)  Template:Neg
Template:H HCOOH(aq) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe HCHO(aq) + H2O  Template:Neg
Template:H 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe H2(g) Template:H ≡ 0
S4O62− + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspS2O32−  +0.08
Fe3O4(s) + 8Template:HspH+ + 8Template:Hspe 3Template:HspFe(s) + 4Template:HspH2O  +0.085 [8]
N2(g) + 2Template:HspH2O + 6H+ + 6Template:Hspe 2Template:HspNH4OH(aq)  +0.092
HgO(s) + H2O + 2Template:Hspe Hg(l) + 2Template:HspOH  +0.0977
Cu(NH3)42+ + e Cu(NH3)2+ + 2Template:HspNH3  +0.10 [2]
Ru(NH3)63+ + e Ru(NH3)62+  +0.10 [7]
N2H4(aq) + 4Template:HspH2O + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspNH4+ + 4Template:HspOH  +0.11 [6]
Template:H H2MoO4(aq) + 6Template:HspH+ + 6Template:Hspe Mo(s) + 4Template:HspH2O  +0.11
Ge4+ + 4Template:Hspe Ge(s)  +0.12
C(s) + 4Template:HspH+ + 4Template:Hspe CH4(g)  +0.13
Template:H HCHO(aq) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe CH3OH(aq)  +0.13
S(s) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe H2S(g)  +0.14
Sn4+ + 2Template:Hspe Sn2+  +0.15
Cu2+ + e Cu+  +0.159 [2]
Template:H HSO4 + 3Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe SO2(aq) + 2Template:HspH2O  +0.16
UO22+ + e UO2+  +0.163 [7]
Template:H SO42− + 4Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe SO2(aq) + 2Template:HspH2O  +0.17
Bi3+ + 2e Bi+  +0.2
SbO+ + 2Template:HspH+ + 3Template:Hspe Sb(s) + H2O  +0.20
Template:H H3AsO3(aq) + 3Template:HspH+ + 3Template:Hspe As(s) + 3Template:HspH2O  +0.24
GeO(s) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe Ge(s) + H2O  +0.26
UO2+ + 4Template:HspH+ + e U4+ + 2Template:HspH2O  +0.273 [7]
Re3+ + 3Template:Hspe Re(s)  +0.300
Bi3+ + 3Template:Hspe Bi(s)  +0.32
VO2+ + 2Template:HspH+ + e V3+ + H2O  +0.34
Cu2+ + 2Template:Hspe Cu(s)  +0.340 [2]
Template:H [Fe(CN)6]3− + e [Fe(CN)6]4−  +0.36
O2(g) + 2Template:HspH2O + 4Template:Hspe 4Template:HspOH(aq)  +0.40
Template:H H2MoO4 + 6Template:HspH+ + 3Template:Hspe Mo3+ + 2Template:HspH2O  +0.43
Bi+ + e Bi(s)  +0.50
Template:H CH3OH(aq) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe CH4(g) + H2O  +0.50
Template:H SO2(aq) + 4Template:HspH+ + 4Template:Hspe S(s) + 2Template:HspH2O  +0.50
Cu+ + e Cu(s)  +0.520 [2]
Template:H CO(g) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe C(s) + H2O  +0.52
I2(s) + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspI  +0.54
I3 + 2Template:Hspe 3Template:HspI  +0.54
Template:H [AuI4] + 3Template:Hspe Au(s) + 4Template:HspI  +0.56
Template:H H3AsO4(aq) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe H3AsO3(aq) + H2O  +0.56
Template:H [AuI2] + e Au(s) + 2Template:HspI  +0.58
MnO4 + 2Template:HspH2O + 3Template:Hspe MnO2(s) + 4Template:HspOH  +0.59
S2O32Template:Hsp + 6Template:HspH+ + 4Template:Hspe 2Template:HspS(s) + 3Template:HspH2O  +0.60
Template:H H2MoO4(aq) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe MoO2(s) + 2Template:HspH2O  +0.65
O2(g) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe H2O2(aq)  +0.70
Tl3+ + 3Template:Hspe Tl(s)  +0.72
PtCl62− + 2Template:Hspe PtCl42− + 2Template:HspCl  +0.726 [7]
Template:H H2SeO3(aq) + 4Template:HspH+ + 4Template:Hspe Se(s) + 3Template:HspH2O  +0.74
PtCl42− + 2Template:Hspe Pt(s) + 4Template:HspCl  +0.758 [7]
Fe3+ + e Fe2+  +0.77
Ag+ + e Ag(s)  +0.7996 [5]
Hg22+ + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspHg(l)  +0.80
Template:H NO3(aq) + 2Template:HspH+ + e NO2(g) + H2O  +0.80
Template:H [AuBr4] + 3Template:Hspe Au(s) + 4Template:HspBr  +0.85
Hg2+ + 2Template:Hspe Hg(l)  +0.85
MnO4 + H+ + e HMnO4  +0.90
Template:H 2Template:HspHg2+ + 2Template:Hspe Hg22+  +0.91
Pd2+ + 2Template:Hspe Pd(s)  +0.915 [7]
Template:H [AuCl4] + 3Template:Hspe Au(s) + 4Template:HspCl  +0.93
MnO2(s) + 4Template:HspH+ + e Mn3+ + 2Template:HspH2O  +0.95
Template:H [AuBr2] + e Au(s) + 2Template:HspBr  +0.96
Br2(l) + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspBr  +1.07
Br2(aq) + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspBr  +1.09
Template:H IO3 + 5Template:HspH+ + 4Template:Hspe HIO(aq) + 2Template:HspH2O  +1.13
Template:H [AuCl2] + e Au(s) + 2Template:HspCl  +1.15
Template:H HSeO4 + 3Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe H2SeO3(aq) + H2O  +1.15
Ag2O(s) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspAg(s) + H2O  +1.17
ClO3 + 2Template:HspH+ + e ClO2(g) + H2O  +1.18
Pt2+ + 2Template:Hspe Pt(s)  +1.188 [7]
ClO2(g) + H+ + e HClO2(aq)  +1.19
Template:H 2IO3 + 12Template:HspH+ + 10Template:Hspe I2(s) + 6Template:HspH2O  +1.20
ClO4 + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe ClO3 + H2O  +1.20
O2(g) + 4Template:HspH+ + 4Template:Hspe 2Template:HspH2O  +1.23
MnO2(s) + 4Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe Mn2+ + 2H2O  +1.23
Tl3+ + 2Template:Hspe Tl+  +1.25
Cl2(g) + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspCl  +1.36
Cr2O7Template:Hsp + 14Template:HspH+ + 6Template:Hspe 2Template:HspCr3+ + 7Template:HspH2O  +1.33
CoO2(s) + 4Template:HspH+ + e Co3+ + 2Template:HspH2O  +1.42
Template:H 2Template:HspNH3OH+ + H+ + 2Template:Hspe N2H5+ + 2Template:HspH2O  +1.42 [6]
Template:H 2HIO(aq) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe I2(s) + 2Template:HspH2O  +1.44
Ce4+ + e Ce3+  +1.44
BrO3 + 5Template:HspH+ + 4Template:Hspe HBrO(aq) + 2Template:HspH2O  +1.45
Template:H β-PbO2(s) + 4Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe Pb2+ + 2Template:HspH2O  +1.460 [2]
Template:H α-PbO2(s) + 4Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe Pb2+ + 2Template:HspH2O  +1.468 [2]
Template:H 2Template:HspBrO3 + 12Template:HspH+ + 10Template:Hspe Br2(l) + 6Template:HspH2O  +1.48
Template:H 2ClO3 + 12Template:HspH+ + 10Template:Hspe Cl2(g) + 6Template:HspH2O  +1.49
MnO4 + 8Template:HspH+ + 5Template:Hspe Mn2+ + 4Template:HspH2O  +1.51
Template:H HO2 + H+ + e H2O2(aq)  +1.51
Au3+ + 3Template:Hspe Au(s)  +1.52
NiO2(s) + 4Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe Ni2+ + 2Template:HspOH  +1.59
Template:H 2HClO(aq) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe Cl2(g) + 2Template:HspH2O  +1.63
Ag2O3(s) + 6Template:HspH+ + 4Template:Hspe 2Template:HspAg+ + 3Template:HspH2O  +1.67
Template:H HClO2(aq) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe HClO(aq) + H2O  +1.67
Pb4+ + 2Template:Hspe Pb2+  +1.69 [2]
MnO4 + 4Template:HspH+ + 3Template:Hspe MnO2(s) + 2Template:HspH2O  +1.70
Template:H H2O2(aq) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspH2O  +1.78
AgO(s) + 2Template:HspH+ + e Ag+ + H2O  +1.77
Co3+ + e Co2+  +1.82
Au+ + e Au(s)  +1.83
BrO4 + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe BrO3 + H2O  +1.85
Ag2+ + e Ag+  +1.98
Cu2O3 + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspCu2+ + 2Template:HspOH  +2.0
S2O82− + 2Template:Hspe 2SO42−  +2.07
O3(g) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe O2(g) + H2O  +2.075 [7]
Template:H HMnO4 + 3Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe MnO2(s) + 2Template:HspH2O  +2.09
F2(g) + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspF  +2.87
F2(g) + 2Template:HspH+ + 2Template:Hspe 2Template:HspHF(aq)  +3.05

References

  1. Milazzo, G., Caroli, S., and Sharma, V. K. (1978). Tables of Standard Electrode Potentials (Wiley, Chichester).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Bard, A. J., Parsons, R., and Jordan, J. (1985). Standard Potentials in Aqueous Solutions (Marcel Dekker, New York).
  3. Bratsch, S. G. (1989). Journal of Physical Chemistry Reference Data Vol. 18, pp. 1–21.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Vanýsek, Petr (2006). "Electrochemical Series," in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 87th Edition (Chemical Rubber Company).
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Vanýsek, Petr (2007). “Electrochemical Series”, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: 88th Edition (Chemical Rubber Company).
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 Bard, A.J., Faulkner, L.R.(2001). Electrochemical Methods. Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd edition (John Wiley and Sons Inc).
  8. 8.0 8.1 Marcel Pourbaix (1966). Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solutions (NACE International, Houston, Texas; Cebelcor, Brussels).

See also

de:Elektrochemische Spannungsreihe nl:Tabel van standaardelektrodepotentialen


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