Smoking risk factors

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Case #1

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Aravind Kuchkuntla, M.B.B.S[2]

Overview

The common risk factors for smoking are, poor family ties, unemployment, alcohol addiction, using illicit drugs, anxiety disorders, and genetic susceptibility.[1]

Risk Factors

The risk factors for the smoking and the failure of smoking cessation attempts include:

  • Poor parent-adolescent relationship quality[2]
  • Unemployment[3]
  • Alcohol addiction
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Genetic susceptibility
  • Patients with addictive disorders[4]
  • Smoking under the age of 18 years is considered as a risk factor for chronic smoking.
  • Illicit drug abuse[5]
  • Access and exposure to substances of abuse and neighborhood disadvantage[6]

References

  1. DOLL R, HILL AB (1950). "Smoking and carcinoma of the lung; preliminary report". Br Med J. 2 (4682): 739–48. PMC 2038856. PMID 14772469.
  2. Hummel A, Shelton KH, Heron J, Moore L, van den Bree MB (2013). "A systematic review of the relationships between family functioning, pubertal timing and adolescent substance use". Addiction. 108 (3): 487–96. doi:10.1111/add.12055. PMID 23163243.
  3. Henkel D (2011). "Unemployment and substance use: a review of the literature (1990-2010)". Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 4 (1): 4–27. PMID 21466502.
  4. Morisano D, Bacher I, Audrain-McGovern J, George TP (2009). "Mechanisms underlying the comorbidity of tobacco use in mental health and addictive disorders". Can J Psychiatry. 54 (6): 356–67. doi:10.1177/070674370905400603. PMID 19527556.
  5. Camenga DR, Klein JD (2016). "Tobacco Use Disorders". Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 25 (3): 445–60. doi:10.1016/j.chc.2016.02.003. PMC 4920978. PMID 27338966.
  6. Mennis J, Stahler GJ, Mason MJ (2016). "Risky Substance Use Environments and Addiction: A New Frontier for Environmental Justice Research". Int J Environ Res Public Health. 13 (6). doi:10.3390/ijerph13060607. PMC 4924064. PMID 27322303.



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