Skeletal fluorosis

Jump to: navigation, search
Skeletal fluorosis
ICD-10 M85.1
ICD-9 733.9

WikiDoc Resources for Skeletal fluorosis


Most recent articles on Skeletal fluorosis

Most cited articles on Skeletal fluorosis

Review articles on Skeletal fluorosis

Articles on Skeletal fluorosis in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ


Powerpoint slides on Skeletal fluorosis

Images of Skeletal fluorosis

Photos of Skeletal fluorosis

Podcasts & MP3s on Skeletal fluorosis

Videos on Skeletal fluorosis

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Skeletal fluorosis

Bandolier on Skeletal fluorosis

TRIP on Skeletal fluorosis

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Skeletal fluorosis at Clinical

Trial results on Skeletal fluorosis

Clinical Trials on Skeletal fluorosis at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Skeletal fluorosis

NICE Guidance on Skeletal fluorosis


FDA on Skeletal fluorosis

CDC on Skeletal fluorosis


Books on Skeletal fluorosis


Skeletal fluorosis in the news

Be alerted to news on Skeletal fluorosis

News trends on Skeletal fluorosis


Blogs on Skeletal fluorosis


Definitions of Skeletal fluorosis

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Skeletal fluorosis

Discussion groups on Skeletal fluorosis

Patient Handouts on Skeletal fluorosis

Directions to Hospitals Treating Skeletal fluorosis

Risk calculators and risk factors for Skeletal fluorosis

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Skeletal fluorosis

Causes & Risk Factors for Skeletal fluorosis

Diagnostic studies for Skeletal fluorosis

Treatment of Skeletal fluorosis

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Skeletal fluorosis


Skeletal fluorosis en Espanol

Skeletal fluorosis en Francais


Skeletal fluorosis in the Marketplace

Patents on Skeletal fluorosis

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Skeletal fluorosis

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]


Skeletal fluorosis is a bone disease exclusively caused by excessive consumption of fluoride.


Common causes of fluorosis include inhalation of fluoride dusts/fumes by workers in industry, use of coal as an indoor fuel source (a common practice in China), consumption of fluoride from drinking water, and consumption of fluoride from the drinking of tea, particularly brick tea.

In some areas, skeletal fluorosis may be endemic. In India, the most common cause of fluorosis is fluoride-laden water derived from deep borewells.

Epidemiology and Demographics

While fluorosis is most severe and widespread in the two largest countries - India and China - UNICEF estimates that "fluorosis is endemic in at least 25 countries across the globe. The total number of people affected is not known, but a conservative estimate would number in the tens of millions." [1]

Skeletal fluorosis in China and India

In China, the World Health Organization recently estimated that 2.7 million people have the crippling form of skeletal fluorosis, while in India, 17 of its 32 states have been identified as "endemic" areas, with an estimated 66 million people at risk and 6 million people seriously afflicted.

According to scientific surveys, skeletal fluorosis in India and China occurs when the fluoride concentration in water exceeds 1 part per million (ppm), and has been found to occur in communities with only 0.7 part per million.[2]

The Chinese government now considers any water supply containing over 1 ppm fluoride a risk for skeletal fluorosis.[2]

Skeletal fluorosis in the United States

In the United States, an average of 1 ppm of fluoride is intentionally added to water supplies for water fluoridation. The Maximum Contaminant Level (as established by the US Environmental Protection Agency) is 4 ppm.[3]


Skeletal fluorosis phases

Osteosclerotic phase Ash concentration (mgF/kg) Symptoms and signs
Normal Bone 500 to 1,000 Normal
Preclinical Phase 3,500 to 5,500 Asymptomatic; slight radiographically-detectable increases in bone mass
Clinical Phase I 6,000 to 7,000 Sporadic pain; stiffness of joints; osteosclerosis of pelvis and vertebral spine
Clinical Phase II 7,500 to 9,000 Chronic joint pain; arthritic symptoms; slight calcification of ligaments' increased osteosclerosis and cancellous bones; with/without osteoporosis of long bones
Phase III: Crippling Fluorosis 8,400 Limitation of joint movement; calcification of ligaments of neck vertebral column; crippling deformities of the spine and major joints; muscle wasting; neurological defects/compression of spinal cord


  1. "UNICEF - Water, environment and sanitation - Common water and sanitation-related diseases". Retrieved 2007-09-17.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Bo Z, Mei H, Yongsheng Z, Xueyu L, Xuelin Z, Jun D (2003). "Distribution and risk assessment of fluoride in drinking water in the west plain region of Jilin province, China". Environmental geochemistry and health. 25 (4): 421–31. PMID 14740986.
  3. "U.S.P.H.S. "Review of Fluoride, Benefits and Risks", 1991". Retrieved 2007-09-17.

fa:فلوئوروزیس استخوانی