Short stature resident survival guide

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Eman Alademi, M.D.[2]

Overview

Causes

Common Causes

Systemic disorders with secondary effects on growth[1][2][3]:

  • Undernutrition [4]


pathologic short stature[27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]

Endocrine causes[35] of growth failure

Genetic diseases with primary effects on growth[43]

Skeletal dysplasias/growth plate abnormalities[71][72][73][74][75][76]





Diagnosis

Shown below is an algorithm summarizing the diagnosis of according the the Netherlands, guidelines.for referral are based on screening parameters of height SDS, height SDS relative to target height SDS, and height SDS deflection[77][78][79][80][81][82]

Diagnosis and Referral for Non-GH Deficiency Disorders[83]

1.Turner syndrome[84][85][86][87]

2.short-stature homeobox (SHOX) gene insufficiency[88]

3. Noonan syndrome[89]

4.Skeletal disproportions[90]

Gaps in the Diagnosis of Short Stature Due to GH Deficiency: depend on clinical and phenotype assessments with growth monitoring and laboratory evaluations

1. tumors and identify ectopic and hypoplastic pituitary glands[91][92]

2.hypothyroidism and chronic systemic diseases[93][94][95]


 
 
 
Diagnosis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Treatment

Shown below is an algorithm summarizing the treatment of [[disease name]] according the the [...] guidelines.[96]



1.Normal variants of growth[edit | edit source]

Familial short stature=None needed. Reassurance; monitor growth

Constitutional delay of growth and puberty=None needed. Reassurance; monitor growth; +/– treatment with sex steroids during puberty.

SGA infant, with catch-up growth=Monitor growth to distinguish from the 10% of SGA infants who do not have catch-up growth.

2.Pathologic causes of growth failure[edit | edit source]

Systemic disorders or processes with secondary effects on growth=

Undernutrition=Reverse nutritional deficit.

Glucocorticoid therapy=Minimize glucocorticoid dose or give on alternate days if feasible; consider alternate drugs.

GI disease (especially Crohn disease and celiac disease)=Diagnose and treat underlying disease, improve nutrition, avoid glucocorticoids.

Rheumatologic disease (especially systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis)=Diagnose and treat underlying disease, improve nutrition, avoid glucocorticoids

Renal disease (CKD, renal tubular acidosis)=Diagnose and treat underlying disease, maximize nutrition; GH if needed.

Cancer=Ensure adequate nutrition; treat any secondary pituitary hormone deficiencies (eg, GH deficiency)

Pulmonary disease (eg, cystic fibrosis, immune deficiencies with recurrent pulmonary infections, or severe asthma)=Diagnose and treat underlying disease, ensure adequate nutrition, avoid glucocorticoids

Immunologic disease=Diagnose and treat underlying disease

Endocrine causes of growth failure

Hypothyroidism=Thyroid hormone replacement

Cushing syndrome=Diagnose and treat underlying disease

GH deficiency=rGH

Precocious puberty=Treatment depends on type of precocious puberty

Genetic diseases with primary effects on growth

Turner syndrome=Estrogen, GH

SHOX mutations=Consider GH.

Noonan syndrome=Consider GH.

Silver-Russell syndrome=Consider GH

Skeletal dysplasias

Achondroplasia=Management of complications, which may include craniocervical junction compression, sleep apnea, spinal stenosis.

Hypochondroplasia=Surveillance for spinal stenosis, with surgery as needed.

Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia=Surveillance for spinal disorders and osteoarthritis, with surgery as needed

Osteogenesis imperfecta=Bisphosphonates, fracture management

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Treatment
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Do's

  • The content in this section is in bullet points.

Don'ts

  • The content in this section is in bullet points.

References

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