Schizotypal personality disorder

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List of terms related to Schizotypal personality disorder

Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Jesus Rosario Hernandez, M.D. [2]

Synonyms and Keywords: Eccentric attitude; odd behavior; odd belief; schizotypal disorder

Overview

Schizotypal personality disorder is a personality disorder that is characterized by a need for social isolation, odd behaviour and thinking, and often unconventional beliefs such as being convinced of having extra-sensory perception. There is a high rate of comorbidity with other personality disorders. McGlashan et al. (2000) stated that this may be due to overlapping criteria with other personality disorders, such as avoidant personality disorder and paranoid personality disorder[1].

Differential Diagnosis

Epidemiology and Demographics

Prevalence

The prevalence of schizotypal personality disorder is 600 to 4,600 per 100,000 (0.6% to 4.6%) of the overall population.[2]

Risk Factors

Natural History, Prognosis and Complications

There is a high rate of comorbidity with other personality disorders. Poor prognostic factors include:

  • First degree relatives with schizophrenia
  • Odd way of thinking
  • Eccentric attitude
  • Solitariness[2]

Diagnostic Criteria

DSM-V Diagnostic Criteria for Schizotypal Personality Disorder[2]

  • A. A pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:
  1. Ideas of reference (excluding delusions of reference).
  2. Odd beliefs or magical thinking that influences behavior and is inconsistent with subcultural norms (e.g., superstitiousness, belief in clairvoyance, telepathy, or “sixth sense”: in children and adolescents, bizarre fantasies or preoccupations.
  3. Unusual perceptual experiences, including bodily illusions.
  4. Odd thinking and speech (e.g., vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, overelaborate, or stereotyped).
  5. Suspiciousness or paranoid ideation.
  6. Inappropriate or constricted affect.
  7. Behavior or appearance that is odd, eccentric, or peculiar.
  8. Lack of close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives.
  9. Excessive social anxiety that does not diminish with familiarity and tends to be associated with paranoid fears rather than negative judgments about self.

AND

Note: If criteria are met prior to the onset of schizophrenia, add “premorbid,”e.g., “schizotypal personality disorder (premorbid).”

References

  1. McGlashan, T.H., Grilo, C.M., Skodol, A.E., Gunderson, J.G., Shea, M.T., Morey, L.C., et al. (2000). The collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study: Baseline axis I/II and II/II diagnostic co-occurrence. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102, 256-264.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-5. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association. 2013. ISBN 0890425558.

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