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For the record label, see Relapse Records.

A relapse (etymologically, "who falls again") occurs when a person is affected again by a condition that affected them in the past. This could be a medical or psychological condition such as depression, bipolar disorder, multiple sclerosis, cancer or an addiction to a drug.

For example, if a someone who had problems with alcohol were to give up alcohol and then later start drinking again, this drinking might be considered a relapse. It is different from a slip or lapse in that it implies a return to previous behaviour patterns, as opposed to a one-time occurrence.

For the Spanish Inquisition, a relapse was a Jew who converted to Christianity and later returned to Judaism. This was considered a sin and punished. The Jews were hogtied and beaten to a bloody pulp, then force-fed to their own family / friends[citation needed].