Reiki

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File:Reiki DSCF2008.jpg
A Reiki treatment in progress

Reiki (霊気 or レイキ? IPA: /ˈreɪkiː/) is a form of spiritual practice,[1] used as a complementary therapy,[2] proposed for the treatment of physical, emotional, and mental diseases.[3][4][5] Mikao Usui developed Reiki in early 20th century Japan, where he said he received the ability of 'healing without energy depletion' after three weeks of fasting and meditating on Mount Kurama.[6] Practitioners use a technique similar to the laying on of hands, which they say will channel "healing energy" (ki).[7] Practitioners state that energy flows through their palms[8] to bring about healing[9] and that the method can be used for self-treatment[10] as well as treatment of others.

Derivation of name

The name Reiki derives from the Japanese pronunciation of two Japanese characters that describe the energy itself: '霊 rei' (meaning 'unseen' or 'spiritual') and 気 ki (Chinese qi, here meaning 'energy' or 'life force').[11] In English, the meaning of Reiki is often given as 'universal life energy'[12] (a translation used by Hawayo Takata, see History). The noun commonly refers to either the energy or the therapeutic method which uses the energy. Reiki is also used as a verb and an adjective. Japanese speakers use the term as a generic 'spiritual power' while the Usui Method of Reiki Healing is specifically Usui reiki shiki ryoho.

Theory

Reiki teachings state that there is a universal 'life force' energy,[13] which can be accessed by practitioners to induce a healing effect.[9] It is claimed by believers that anyone can gain access to this energy[14] by means of an attunement process[15] carried out by a Reiki Master.[16]

The belief is that the energy will flow through the practitioner's hands whenever the hands are placed on, or held near a potential recipient, who can be clothed.[17] Some teachings stress the importance of the practitioner's intention or presence in this process, while others claim that the energy is drawn by the recipient's injury to activate or enhance the natural healing processes.[18] Going further, the belief is that the 'energy' is 'intelligent',[19], making diagnosis unnecessary.

A second level of training, including another initiation, is said to equip the practitioner to perform Reiki treatments from a distance.[20] This method, it is stated, involves the use of special symbols to form a temporary connection between the practitioner and the recipient, regardless of location, and then to send the Reiki energy.[21] Techniques are also taught whereby Reiki can be sent to a specific point in time, either in the past or the future.[22]

The energy involved in a Reiki treatment is said to be 'from the Universe,' rather than the personal energy of the practitioner,[23] and is therefore inexhaustible.[24] (Some teachings say that the energy enters the practitioner through the crown chakra at the top of the head, before being emitted from the hands.)[25] As a consequence, Reiki practitioners are taught that they can treat themselves with Reiki.[10]

Reiki is also used by practitioners as preventative medicine, as it is claimed that the energy encourages healing before any noticeable symptoms have emerged.[26] Another consequence of the simplicity of Reiki is that it can be taught to children.[27]

Some teachers state that if, on some level, the intended recipient does not wish to be healed, the energy will not flow.[28]

Reiki is described by adherents as a holistic therapy which brings about healing on physical, mental, emotional and spiritual levels.[5] It is said that healing may occur in any or all of these domains in a single treatment, without any conscious direction needed by either the practitioner or the recipient.

Practice

Whole body treatment

In a typical whole-body Reiki treatment,[29] the practitioner asks the recipient to lie down, usually on a massage table, and relax. Loose, comfortable clothing is usually worn during the treatment. The practitioner might take a few moments to enter a calm or meditative state of mind and mentally prepare for the treatment,[30] which is usually carried out without any unnecessary talking.[31]

The treatment proceeds with the practitioner placing his hands on the recipient in various positions. However, some practitioners use a non-touching technique, where the hands are held a few centimetres away from the recipient's body, for some or all of the positions. The hands are usually kept still for 3 to 5 minutes before moving to the next position. Overall, the hand positions usually give a general coverage of the head, the front and back of the torso, the knees and feet. Between 12 and 20 positions are used, with the whole treatment lasting 45 to 90 minutes.[32]

Some practitioners use a fixed set of hand positions. Others use their intuition to guide them as to where treatment is needed,[33] sometimes starting the treatment with a 'scan' of the recipient to find such areas. The intuitive approach might also lead to individual positions being treated for much shorter or longer periods of time.

It is reported that the recipient often feels warmth or tingling in the area being treated, even when a non-touching approach is being used. A state of deep relaxation, combined with a general feeling of well-being, is usually the most noticeable immediate effect of the treatment, although emotional releases can also occur.[34] As the Reiki treatment is said to be stimulating natural healing processes, instantaneous 'cures' of specific health problems are not usually observed. A series of three or more treatments, typically at intervals of 1 to 7 days, is usually recommended if a chronic condition is being addressed.[35] Regular treatments, on an on-going basis, can be used with the aim of maintaining well-being. The interval between such treatments is typically in the range of 1 to 4 weeks, except in the case of self-treatment when a daily practice is common.[36]

Localized treatment

Localized Reiki treatments involve the practitioner's hands being held on or near a specific part of the body. Recent injuries are usually treated in this way,[37] with the site of injury being targeted. There is great variation in the duration of such treatments, though 20 minutes might be typical.

Some practitioners use localized treatments for certain ailments, and some publications have tabulated appropriate hand positions.[38] However, other practitioners prefer to use the whole body treatment for all chronic conditions, on the grounds that it has a more holistic effect.[39] Another approach is to give a whole body treatment first, followed by a localized treatment.[40]

Informal treatment

Many practitioners use Reiki in an informal way, as part of social interaction with friends or family members. In this style of use, the practitioner places one or both hands on any part of the recipient: wherever feels appropriate and comfortable in the particular situation. Talking and all other aspects of social interaction continue as normal.[41]

Self treatment

A Reiki practitioner can treat himself or herself with any of the methods described above.[10] In this case, the practitioner is also the recipient.

Group treatment

A group treatment involves two or more Reiki practitioners treating the same recipient, simultaneously.[42] This is said to have a significantly stronger effect than treatment from a single practitioner.

Groups of practitioners can come together to share Reiki.[43] In these situations, each participant in turn acts as the recipient, with the rest of the group giving the treatment. The number of people involved is usually in the range 3 to 9. (Two practitioners can also meet to exchange Reiki treatments.) If there are more than 8 or 9 participants, then they split into two or more groups for practical reasons. The duration of treatment is such that the whole sharing takes one to two hours (between 10 and 30 minutes per recipient). Such a 'Reiki share' is often a social occasion, with the practitioners talking throughout.

Treatment of animals and plants

File:Reiki DSCF2039.jpg
A pet dog receiving Reiki

Animals and plants are usually treated for shorter periods than humans. The duration of treatment, and number of hand positions used, depends on factors such as the size of the recipient and the severity of the condition being addressed. In the absence of disease, some practitioners enjoy giving Reiki to animals or plants, as a loving interaction.[44][45]

Spiritual practice

Many practitioners use Reiki as the basis of a spiritual practice, or to augment other spiritual practices. The cornerstone of Reiki spiritual practice is a daily one hour self-treatment,[46] conducted in a meditative frame of mind. As well as maintaining physical, mental and emotional well-being, this practice is understood to induce spiritual growth, potentially leading to self-realization.[47]

Many Reiki practitioners also undertake to observe the 5 Reiki Principles recommended by Mikao Usui[48] (see History).

History

Origin

A Japanese Tendai Buddhist named Mikao Usui is credited with discovering Reiki in 1922 after a twenty-one day retreat on Mount Kurama, involving meditation, fasting, and prayer.[6] Usui claimed that by mystical revelation he had gained the knowledge and spiritual power to apply and attune others to what is called Reiki.

In April 1922, Usui moved to Tokyo and founded the Usui Reiki Ryoho Gakkai (Usui Reiki Healing Society).[49]

Usui was an admirer of the literary works of Emperor Meiji, and, in the process of developing his Reiki system, summarised some of the emperor's works into a set of ethical principles, which later became known as the Reiki Principles. Many Reiki teachers and practitioners aim to abide by these five principles,[50] one translation of which is:

"The secret method of inviting good fortune.
The marvelous medicine for all sickness
Just for today:
Do not be angry
Do not be worried
Be grateful
Work hard (on improving yourself)
Be kind to others.
Every morning and every night, sit in the Gassho position [hands held palm-to-palm] and speak these words out loud in your heart.
For the evolution of body and soul, Usui Reiki Ryoho" - Mikao Usui, the founder.[51]

Usui taught over 2000 students to use Reiki. 16 of his students continued their training to reach the Shinpiden level, equivalent to the Western third degree, or master level.[52]

Usui died in 1926.

Early development

After Usui's death, Chujiro Hayashi a former student of Usui left the Usui Reiki Ryoho Gakkai and formed his own association. Hayashi simplified the Reiki teachings, stressing physical healing and using a more codified and simpler set of Reiki techniques.[53]

Hayashi initiated and trained Hawayo Takata,[54] who travelled widely in the USA, practising Reiki and teaching the first two levels to others.[55]

Takata stressed the importance of charging money for Reiki treatments and teachings. In 1976, Takata began teaching the Shinpiden stage and introduced the term Reiki master for this level.[56] She also fixed a price of $10,000 for the master training.[citation needed]

Takata died in 1979[57] by which time she had trained 22 Reiki masters.[58] Almost all Reiki taught outside Japan has followed from her work.[59]

Recent developments

After the death of Hawayo Takata, former studet Barbara Weber Ray founded the American Reiki Association (ARA) which later became the AIRA and is now The Radiance Technique International Association Inc. (TRTIA). The organization differentiates its teachings from those of other Reiki masters and organizations, considering itself to be the one true continuation of Takata's heritage. [60]

Soon after the founding of the ARA, Phyllis Furumoto, a granddaughter of Takata, founded The Reiki Alliance.[61] Since 1988, the Alliance has accepted Reiki Masters from a wide range of backgrounds as members.[62]

Another Takata student, Iris Ishikuro, abandoned the practice of charging $10,000 for Reiki Master training, allowing Reiki to spread more widely.[citation needed]

A great deal of generic New Age content is now often taught either as an adjunct to Reiki or even as an integral part of the system, and numerous schools of thought now exist, some being freely offered and some proprietary.[63]

The Reiki Network was formed as an organization to promote a standardized teaching of traditional Reiki.[64] In addition to the teaching organizations, whose members are Reiki masters, many communities of Reiki practitioners have formed.[citation needed]

Training

The teaching of Reiki outside of Japan is commonly divided into three levels, or degrees.[65]

First degree

The first degree Reiki course[66] teaches the basic theories and procedures of how to work with Reiki energy. The channel through which Reiki energy passes to the practitioner is said to be opened or widened through four "attunements" given to the student by the teacher.[67] Students learn hand placement positions on the recipient's body that are thought to be most conducive to the healing process in a whole body treatment.[68] Having completed the first degree course, the participant can treat himself and others with Reiki. The course duration is typically two days, although this varies widely.[69]

Second degree

In the second degree Reiki course,[70] the student learns the use of three symbols which are said to enhance the healing effect and allow for distance healing.[71] Another attunement is given which is said to further increase the capacity for Reiki to flow through the student, as well as empowering the use of the symbols.[72] Having completed the second level, the student can treat people with Reiki without being physically present with the recipient.[73] The first degree is a prerequisite for the second degree, which is usually taught over two days, although this varies considerably.[74]

Third degree or master training

Through the third degree, or "master training",[75] the student becomes a Reiki Master. (In Reiki terminology, the word 'master' does not imply spiritual enlightenment.) One or more attunements are carried out and the student learns a further master-level symbol.[76] Having completed the master training, the new Reiki Master can attune other people to Reiki and teach the three degrees of Reiki. The first and second degrees are prerequisites for the master training. The duration of the master training can be anything from a day to a year or more, depending on the school and philosophy of the Reiki Master giving the training. In the case of comprehensive training, the third level is often broken into two or three smaller stages of attunements and teaching.[77]

Variations

There is much variation in training methods, speeds and costs, as there is no regulation of Reiki. Students on the traditional path may be made to wait up to a year or more after the first level, before being allowed to learn the second degree, and thereafter many more years before being taught the master level. Other teachers, taking a non-traditional approach, might cover all three levels within a few days. Correspondence courses over the Internet even offer distance training. Some traditionalists maintain that any method that teaches Reiki "quickly" cannot yield as strong an effect, because there is no substitute for experience and patient mastery of the art.[78][79]

Whilst masters affiliated to the Reiki Alliance or the Reiki Network teach within the three level structure outlined above, The Radiance Technique®/Authentic Reiki® teaches a seven level system.[80]

Many independent teachers combine Reiki with other techniques, such as working with crystals, colour therapy, spirit guides or visualization. Such methods are sometimes included as part of a Reiki course.[81]

Criticism

Effectiveness

Opponents of Reiki say that any therapeutic effect may be due to the placebo effect.[82] Post hoc reasoning and the regressive fallacy have also been suggested as possible factors.[citation needed] It has also been claimed that people receiving Reiki use it merely as a "feel-good" therapy and do not expect any significant healing effects.[83]

Safety

Some safety concerns are shared with other alternative medicines. In particular, it is feared by doctors of Western medicine that patients might avoid clinically proven treatments for serious conditions, in favour of Reiki.[citation needed] Some Reiki practitioners encourage their clients to consult a medical doctor for serious conditions, stating that Reiki can be used to complement conventional medicine.[84] It has never been reported or proven that Reiki causes harm, and it is often defined by practitioners as a gentle practice that allows for the body to heal itself more effectively.

Religious

Fr Tom Ingoldsby of the Salesian Order of the Roman Catholic church denounced Reiki as "opening the door to evil and occult forces which have later side effects".[85] Some Christians believe Reiki "creates a closer connection for them to God."[86]

In respose to Fr Ingoldsby's criticism, Reiki teacher and RFI co-founder Angela Gorman said it was understandable that some people remained sceptical about complementary therapies but she warned them not to be close-minded to new ideas."[87]

“Some people’s opinions of Reiki are often anchored in ignorance and suspicion rather than pure scientific fact,” said Ms Gorman, a former nurse.[88]

Internal controversies

With the many varied ways that have been used to teach Reiki, there have emerged points of controversy between different groups, teachers and practitioners. Controversies exist on topics such as the nature of the Reiki energy itself, fees charged for courses and treatments, training methods, secrecy of symbols and attunement methods.[citation needed]

Following the death of Hawayo Takata, through to the mid 1990s, there were rival claims to the title of "Grandmaster" of Reiki. However, this dispute largely evaporated when it was discovered that Takata herself had invented the title.[89]

See also

Notes

  1. Reiki as a spiritual practice: (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 ch14,pp108-110); (Ellyard 2004 p79); (McKenzie 1998 p19,42,52); (Lübeck 1996 p22); (Boräng 1997 p57); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p72)
  2. Reiki is a complementary therapy: NCCAM;[1] BMJ;[2] ICM[3]
  3. There is no logical justification for the capitalization of "Reiki", except perhaps that its practitioners regard it as a proper noun. It is, however, almost universally capitalized and this article follows that form.
  4. What is Reiki? According to: The Reiki Alliance;[4] The Reiki Network;[5] International House of Reiki;[6] The International Center for Reiki Training[7]
  5. 5.0 5.1 Reiki is holistic, bringing healing on physical, mental, emotional and spiritual levels: (Baginski,Sharamon 1988 p35); (Gollagher 1998 p44); (Boräng 1997 p10); (McKenzie 1998 p81)
  6. 6.0 6.1 Usui's 21 day retreat: (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p14); What is the History of Reiki?
  7. National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. An Introduction to Reiki
  8. Reiki flows through hands: (McKenzie 1998 p18); (Ellyard 2004 p27); (Boräng 1997 p9); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p33)
  9. 9.0 9.1 Reiki can induce healing: (McKenzie 1998 p18); (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p14,68); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p30); (Ellyard 2004 p27)
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Self-treatment is possible: (Ellyard 2004 p27); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 ch6); (McKenzie 1998 p18,66); (Baginski,Sharamon 1988 ch7); (Gollagher 1998 ch6)
  11. Derivation of name: (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 ch6)
  12. Reiki means 'universal life energy': (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p302); (McKenzie 1998 p18); (Shuffrey 1998 p1)
  13. Reiki as universal life force energy: (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p62); (McKenzie 1998 p18); (Ellyard 2004 p75); (Lübeck 1994 p13); (Boräng 1997 p8)
  14. Anyone can be attuned to Reiki: (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p8); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p35); (Ellyard 2004 p77)
  15. Note: The terms 'attunement' and 'initiation' are usually used interchangeably with regard to Reiki. Occasionally there is a slight difference of emphasis implied, with 'attunement' used when discussing the gaining of access to the Reiki energy and 'initiation' when discussing the personal (or spiritual) growth aspect. Both these aspects relate to the same physical procedure.
  16. Access is by means of attunement: (Ellyard 2004 p27,31); (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p22); (McKenzie 1998 p18,19); (Gollagher 1998 p26); (Boräng 1997 p12)
  17. Recipient may be clothed: (Lübeck 1994 p48); (McKenzie 1998 p81); (Boräng 1997 p10,36)
  18. Reiki activates or enhances natural healing: (McKenzie 1998 p18); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p78,93); (Gollagher 1998 p24)
  19. Reiki is 'intelligent': (Ellyard 2004 p28,29); (Boräng 1997 p10)
  20. Second level allows distance healing: (Ellyard 2004 p107); (McKenzie 1998 p56); (Lübeck 1994 p155); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p119)
  21. Use of symbols for connection during distant healing: (McKenzie 1998 p39); (Ellyard 2004 p110)
  22. Reiki can be sent to past or future: (McKenzie 1998 p39); (Ellyard 2004 p115); (Lübeck 1994 p155)
  23. Reiki energy is from the Universe, not personal: (Ellyard 2004 p27,28,75); (Boräng 1997 p9)
  24. Reiki is inexhaustible. (McKenzie 1998 p18); (Boräng 1997 p9)
  25. Reiki enters practitioner through crown chakra: (Ellyard 2004 p27,28)
  26. Reiki as preventative medicine: (McKenzie 1998 p18); (Ellyard 2004 p69)
  27. Children can use Reiki: (Ellyard 2004 p55); (McKenzie 1998 p100)
  28. Reiki blocked if recipient does not want to be healed: (Lübeck 1994 p16)
  29. Whole body treatment: (Lübeck 1994 ch4,ch5); (McKenzie 1998 p84); (Ellyard 2004 p45); (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 ch20); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p79); (Petter 1997 p50,55); (Boräng 1997 p36)
  30. Mental preparation by practitioner at start of treatment: (Ellyard 2004 p46)
  31. Minimum talking during formal treatments: (Ellyard 2004 p45)
  32. Duration of whole body treatment: (Ellyard 2004 p41)
  33. Use of intuition: (Usui,Petter 2003 p17)
  34. Immediate effects of treatment: (Ellyard 2004 p44)
  35. Frequency of treatment of others: (Ellyard 2004 p41)
  36. Frequency of self-treatment: (Ellyard 2004 p41)
  37. Treatment of injuries: (McKenzie 1998 p110); (Ellyard 2004 p70); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p77)
  38. Hand positions for specific ailments: (Usui,Petter 2003 p49-67); (Lübeck 1994 p173-184)
  39. Whole body treatment for chronic conditions: (McKenzie 1998 p108); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p81)
  40. Localized treatment following on from whole body treatment: (McKenzie 1998 p105)
  41. Informal use of reiki: (Ellyard 2004 p60)
  42. Group treatment: (Baginski,Sharamon 1988 ch15); (Ellyard 2004 p58)
  43. Reiki share: (McKenzie 1998 p102)
  44. Treatment of animals: (Ellyard 2004 p55), (Baginski, Sharamon 1988 ch18)
  45. Treatment of plants: (Baginski, Sharamon 1988 ch19)
  46. Self-treatment as spiritual practice: (Boräng 1997 p57)
  47. Reiki as path to self-realization: (Petter 1998 p9)
  48. Use of 5 Reiki Principles in spiritual practice: (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 ch21)
  49. Founding of Usui Reiki Ryoho Gakkai: (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p14)
  50. Practice of 5 Principles: Part of Reiki Alliance membership agreement
  51. The 5 Reiki Principles: Reiki Principles; (Petter 1998 p29); (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p95)
  52. Number of people taught by Usui: (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p16)
  53. Hayashi's teachings: (Lübeck,Petter,Rand 2001 p17,ch19)
  54. Hayashi trained Takata: (Ellyard 2004 p13)
  55. Takata's Reiki practice and teaching in the US: (Ellyard 2004 p15)
  56. Start of Takata's teaching of Reiki Masters: (Ellyard 2004 p15)
  57. Death of Takata: (Ellyard 2004 p16); some sources give the year of death as 1980: (Petter 1997 p21), (Veltheim, Veltheim 1995 p26)
  58. Takata trained 22 Reiki Masters: (Ellyard 2004 p14), (Veltheim, Veltheim 1995 p26), (Petter 1997 p20)
  59. Significance of Takata in bringing Reiki out of Japan: (Ellyard 2004 p14,16), (Veltheim, Veltheim 1995 p26)
  60. The Radiance Technique brief history and "authentic" stance: (Ellyard 2004 p23)
  61. Founding of the Reiki Alliance: (Ellyard 2004 p20)
  62. The Reiki Alliance accepting wide range of masters: (Ellyard 2004 p21)
  63. Diversification of Reiki: (Ellyard 2004 p24)
  64. Formation and aim of the Reiki Network: (Veltheim, Veltheim 1995 p113), [8]
  65. Reiki is taught in 3 levels: (McKenzie 1998 p54); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p117); (Petter 1997 p38)
  66. First degree course content: (McKenzie 1998 p54); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p118); (Petter 1997 p38)
  67. Effect of 4 attunements in 1st level: (Ellyard 2004 p37)
  68. Teaching of hand positions during First degree course: (Baginski, Sharamon 1988 p48), (Petter 1997 p39)
  69. Duration of First degree course: (Baginski, Sharamon 1988 p46), (Petter 1997 p38)
  70. Second degree course content: (McKenzie 1998 p56); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p119); (Petter 1997 p43)
  71. Teaching of symbols in Second Degree: (Ellyard 2004 p81)
  72. Effect of 2nd level attunement: (Ellyard 2004 p81)
  73. Healing at a distance taught during Second Degree course: (Petter 1997 p43)
  74. Duration of Second Degree course: (Petter 1997 p44)
  75. Master training: (McKenzie 1998 p58); (Veltheim,Veltheim 1995 p120-124); (Petter 1997 p47-49)
  76. Content of master training: (Ellyard 2004 ch16,ch17)
  77. Splitting of third degree teaching into two or three stages: (Ellyard 2004 p157)
  78. The levels of Reiki
  79. Frequently Asked Questions about Reiki
  80. TRTIA teached a seven level system: (Lübeck 1996 p139)
  81. Variations in styles of Reiki and course content: (Ellyard 2004 p24), (Veltheim, Veltheim 1995 p105)
  82. A skeptical assessment of reiki: National Council Against Health Fraud article.
  83. Some Thoughts about "CAM" Beliefs
  84. Reiki does not replace conventional medicine but complements it: (McKenzie 1998 p7,18,105)
  85. Reiki teachers hit back at priest's Satanic warning
  86. Reiki for Christians
  87. Reiki teachers hit back at priest's Satanic warning
  88. Reiki teachers hit back at priest's Satanic warning
  89. "Grandmaster" dispute: (Veltheim, Veltheim 1995 p106), (Ellyard 2004 p21,23)

References

  • Reiki: Universal Life Energy, Bodo J. Baginski & Shalila Sharamon, English print: Life Rhythm, 1988, ISBN 0-940795-02-7
  • Spiritual Healing: Scientific Validation of a Healing Revolution, Daniel J. Benor, M.D., Vision Publications (MI) (December 2000) ISBN 1-886785-11-2
  • Reiki (Principles of), Kajsa Krishni Boräng, Thorsons, 1997, ISBN 0-7225-3406-X
  • Reiki Healer: A Complete Guide to the Path and Practice of Reiki, Ellyard, Lotus Press, 2004, ISBN 0-940985-64-0
  • Reiki: a Gift from the Universe, Trevor Gollagher, 1998
  • Big Book of Reiki Symbols, Mark Hosak and Walter Luebeck, Lotus Press, ISBN 0-914955-64-0
  • Complete Reiki Handbook, Luebeck, English print: Lotus Press, 1994, ISBN 0-941524-87-6
  • Reiki: Way of the Heart, Luebeck, English print: Lotus Press, 1996, ISBN 0-941524-91-4
  • Spirit of Reiki, Luebeck, Petter & Rand, 1st English print: Lotus Press, 2001, 5th print: 2004, ISBN 0-914955-67-5
  • Reiki Systems of the World, Oliver Klatt with Petter, Luebeck, Rand, Alexander, Furumoto, Mitchell and others, Lotus Press, ISBN 0-914955-79-9
  • Healing Reiki, Eleanor McKenzie, Hamlyn, 1998, ISBN 0-600-59528-5
  • Reiki: A Comprehensive Guide, Pamela Miles, Tarcher/Penguin, 2006, ISBN 1-58542-474-9
  • Reiki For Dummies, Nina L Paul PhD, Wiley Publishing Inc, 2005, ISBN 0-7645-9907-0
  • Reiki Fire, Frank Arjava Petter, Lotus Press, 1997, ISBN 0-914955-50-0
  • Reiki: The Legacy of Dr. Usui, Frank Arjava Petter, 1st English print: Lotus Press, 1998, ISBN 0-914955-56-X
  • Hayashi Reiki Manual: Traditional Japanese Healing Techniques from the Founder of the Western Reiki System, Petter, Yamaguchi and Hayashi, Lotus Press, ISBN 0-914955-75-6
  • The 'Reiki' Factor in The Radiance Technique(R), Dr. Barbara Ray, Radiance Associates, 1983 (current Expanded Edition (c) 1992), ISBN 0-933267-06-1
  • Reiki: A Beginner's Guide, Sandi Leir Shuffrey, Headway (Hodder & Stoughton), 1998, ISBN 0-340-72081-6
  • The Reiki Sourcebook, Bronwen and Frans Stiene, O Books, 2003, ISBN 1-903816-55-6
  • The Japanese Art of Reiki, Bronwen and Frans Stiene, O Books, 2005, ISBN 1-905047-02-9
  • A-Z of Reiki, Bronwen and Frans Stiene, O Books, 2006, ISBN 1-905047-89-4
  • Original Reiki Handbook of Dr. Mikao Usui, Usui and Petter, 4th English print: Lotus Press, 2003, ISBN 0-914955-57-8
  • Reiki: the Science, Metaphysics and Philosophy, Dr. John & Esther Veltheim, Parama, 1995, ISBN 0-9645944-0-4
  • An Introduction to Reiki[9] National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (retrieved on 3 July 2007)
  • ABC of complementary medicine[10] Catherine Zollman and Andrew Vickers, BMJ 1999;319:693-696, 11 September 1999, (retrieved on 3 July 2007)
  • BRCP Divisions and Practises[11] Institute For Complementary Medicine (retrieved on 3 July 2007)
  • Reiki: Review of a Biofield Therapy-- Miles, P., True, G., Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine (March/April 2003), 9(2) pp 62-72
  • Human Hemoglobin Levels and Reiki (Journal of Holistic Nursing, 7(1)pp.47-54 1989)
  • Biological correlates of Reiki touch healing, Wardell, D.W., Engebretson, J., J. Advanced Nursing, 33(4): 439-445 (2001)

External links

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