Pneumonia other imaging findings

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Hamid Qazi, MD, BSc [2], Alejandro Lemor, M.D. [3]


Bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is useful to obtain samples for gram stain and culture in patients with certain conditions, such as immunocompromised patients, ICU admission, or antibiotic failure.




  1. Mandell, L. A.; Wunderink, R. G.; Anzueto, A.; Bartlett, J. G.; Campbell, G. D.; Dean, N. C.; Dowell, S. F.; File, T. M.; Musher, D. M.; Niederman, M. S.; Torres, A.; Whitney, C. G. (2007). "Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 44 (Supplement 2): S27–S72. doi:10.1086/511159. ISSN 1058-4838.
  2. Pitchenik AE, Ganjei P, Torres A, Evans DA, Rubin E, Baier H (1986). "Sputum examination for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome". Am Rev Respir Dis. 133 (2): 226–9. PMID 3484921.
  3. Reissig A, Copetti R, Mathis G, Mempel C, Schuler A, Zechner P; et al. (2012). "Lung ultrasound in the diagnosis and follow-up of community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective, multicenter, diagnostic accuracy study". Chest. 142 (4): 965–72. doi:10.1378/chest.12-0364. PMID 22700780.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Reissig A, Copetti R (2014). "Lung ultrasound in community-acquired pneumonia and in interstitial lung diseases". Respiration. 87 (3): 179–89. doi:10.1159/000357449. PMID 24481027.