Plague of Justinian

Jump to: navigation, search

WikiDoc Resources for Plague of Justinian

Articles

Most recent articles on Plague of Justinian

Most cited articles on Plague of Justinian

Review articles on Plague of Justinian

Articles on Plague of Justinian in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ

Media

Powerpoint slides on Plague of Justinian

Images of Plague of Justinian

Photos of Plague of Justinian

Podcasts & MP3s on Plague of Justinian

Videos on Plague of Justinian

Evidence Based Medicine

Cochrane Collaboration on Plague of Justinian

Bandolier on Plague of Justinian

TRIP on Plague of Justinian

Clinical Trials

Ongoing Trials on Plague of Justinian at Clinical Trials.gov

Trial results on Plague of Justinian

Clinical Trials on Plague of Justinian at Google

Guidelines / Policies / Govt

US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Plague of Justinian

NICE Guidance on Plague of Justinian

NHS PRODIGY Guidance

FDA on Plague of Justinian

CDC on Plague of Justinian

Books

Books on Plague of Justinian

News

Plague of Justinian in the news

Be alerted to news on Plague of Justinian

News trends on Plague of Justinian

Commentary

Blogs on Plague of Justinian

Definitions

Definitions of Plague of Justinian

Patient Resources / Community

Patient resources on Plague of Justinian

Discussion groups on Plague of Justinian

Patient Handouts on Plague of Justinian

Directions to Hospitals Treating Plague of Justinian

Risk calculators and risk factors for Plague of Justinian

Healthcare Provider Resources

Symptoms of Plague of Justinian

Causes & Risk Factors for Plague of Justinian

Diagnostic studies for Plague of Justinian

Treatment of Plague of Justinian

Continuing Medical Education (CME)

CME Programs on Plague of Justinian

International

Plague of Justinian en Espanol

Plague of Justinian en Francais

Business

Plague of Justinian in the Marketplace

Patents on Plague of Justinian

Experimental / Informatics

List of terms related to Plague of Justinian

Please Take Over This Page and Apply to be Editor-In-Chief for this topic: There can be one or more than one Editor-In-Chief. You may also apply to be an Associate Editor-In-Chief of one of the subtopics below. Please mail us [1] to indicate your interest in serving either as an Editor-In-Chief of the entire topic or as an Associate Editor-In-Chief for a subtopic. Please be sure to attach your CV and or biographical sketch.

This article concerns the worldwide pandemic starting in 541, with a focus on material available from European records and accounts. For detailed information on the most commonly accepted cause of the disease, see bubonic plague.

The Plague of Justinian was a pandemic that afflicted the Byzantine Empire, including its capital Constantinople, in the years 541542. It has been speculated that this pandemic marked an early recorded incidence of bubonic plague, which centuries later became infamous for either causing or contributing to the Black Death. Its social and cultural impact is comparable to that of the Black Death of the 14th century. In the views of 6th century Western historians, it was nearly worldwide in scope, striking central and south Asia, North Africa and Arabia, and Europe as far north as Denmark and as far west as Ireland. The plague would return with each generation throughout the Mediterranean basin until about 750. The plague would also have a major impact on the future course of European history. Modern historians named it after the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I, who was in power at the time.

The outbreak may have originated in Ethiopia or Egypt and moved northward until it reached metropolitan Constantinople. The city imported massive amounts of grain to feed its citizens—mostly from Egypt—and grain ships may have been the original source of contagion, with the massive public granaries nurturing the rat and flea population.

The Byzantine historian Procopius records that, at its peak, the plague was killing 10,000 people in Constantinople every day, although the accuracy of this figure is in question and the true number will probably never be known for sure; what is known is that there was no room to bury the dead, and bodies were being left stacked in the open. The Byzantine Emperor Justinian I ensured that new legislation was swiftly enacted so as to deal more efficiently with the glut of inheritance suits being brought as a result of the plague deaths (Moorhead, J., 1994).

Justinian had expended huge amounts of money for wars against the Vandals in the Carthage region and the Ostrogoth Kingdom of Italy. He had also dedicated significant funds to the construction of great churches like the Hagia Sophia. Amidst these great expenditures, the plague's effects on tax revenue were disastrous. As the plague spread to port cities around the Mediterranean, it gave the struggling Goths new opportunities in their conflict with Constantinople. The plague weakened the Byzantine Empire at the critical point at which Justinian's armies had nearly wholly invaded Italy and could have credibly reformed the Western Roman Empire. It also may have contributed to the success of the Arabs a few generations later. The long term effects on European and Christian history were enormous. Justinian's gambit backfired and the overextended troops could not hold on. Italy was decimated by war and fragmented for centuries as the Lombard tribes invaded the north.

Ancient historians did not hold to modern standards of fact-checking or numerical accuracy. The actual number of deaths will always be uncertain. Modern scholars believe that the plague killed up to 5,000 people per day in Constantinople at the peak of the pandemic. It ultimately killed perhaps 40 percent of the city's inhabitants. The initial plague went on to destroy up to a quarter of the human population of the eastern Mediterranean. New, frequent waves of the plague continued to strike throughout the 6th, 7th and 8th centuries, often more localized and less virulent. A maximum figure of 25 million dead for the Plague of Justinian is considered a fairly reasonable estimate. Some historians such as Josiah C. Russell (1958) have suggested a total European population loss of 50 to 60 percent between 541 and 700.

After 750, major epidemic diseases would not appear again in Europe until the Black Death of the 14th century.

See also

References

  • Lester K. Little, ed., Plague and the End of Antiquity: The Pandemic of 541-750, Cambridge, 2006. ISBN 0-521-84639-0
  • McNeill, William H. "Plagues and Peoples." Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc., New York, NY, 1976, ISBN 0-385-12122-9.
  • Moorhead, J., "Justinian", London 1994.
  • Orent, Wendy. "Plague, The Mysterious Past and Terrifying Future of the World's Most Dangerous Disease.", Simon & Schuster, Inc., New York, NY, 2004, ISBN 0-7432-3685-8.
  • Rosen, William. Justinian's Flea: Plague, Empire, and the Birth of Europe, Viking Adult, 2007. ISBN 978-0670038558.
Cost Effectiveness of Plague of Justinian

| group5 = Clinical Trials Involving Plague of Justinian | list5 = Ongoing Trials on Plague of Justinian at Clinical Trials.govTrial results on Plague of JustinianClinical Trials on Plague of Justinian at Google


| group6 = Guidelines / Policies / Government Resources (FDA/CDC) Regarding Plague of Justinian | list6 = US National Guidelines Clearinghouse on Plague of JustinianNICE Guidance on Plague of JustinianNHS PRODIGY GuidanceFDA on Plague of JustinianCDC on Plague of Justinian


| group7 = Textbook Information on Plague of Justinian | list7 = Books and Textbook Information on Plague of Justinian


| group8 = Pharmacology Resources on Plague of Justinian | list8 = AND (Dose)}} Dosing of Plague of JustinianAND (drug interactions)}} Drug interactions with Plague of JustinianAND (side effects)}} Side effects of Plague of JustinianAND (Allergy)}} Allergic reactions to Plague of JustinianAND (overdose)}} Overdose information on Plague of JustinianAND (carcinogenicity)}} Carcinogenicity information on Plague of JustinianAND (pregnancy)}} Plague of Justinian in pregnancyAND (pharmacokinetics)}} Pharmacokinetics of Plague of Justinian


| group9 = Genetics, Pharmacogenomics, and Proteinomics of Plague of Justinian | list9 = AND (pharmacogenomics)}} Genetics of Plague of JustinianAND (pharmacogenomics)}} Pharmacogenomics of Plague of JustinianAND (proteomics)}} Proteomics of Plague of Justinian


| group10 = Newstories on Plague of Justinian | list10 = Plague of Justinian in the newsBe alerted to news on Plague of JustinianNews trends on Plague of Justinian</small>


| group11 = Commentary on Plague of Justinian | list11 = Blogs on Plague of Justinian

| group12 = Patient Resources on Plague of Justinian | list12 = Patient resources on Plague of JustinianDiscussion groups on Plague of JustinianPatient Handouts on Plague of JustinianDirections to Hospitals Treating Plague of JustinianRisk calculators and risk factors for Plague of Justinian


| group13 = Healthcare Provider Resources on Plague of Justinian | list13 = Symptoms of Plague of JustinianCauses & Risk Factors for Plague of JustinianDiagnostic studies for Plague of JustinianTreatment of Plague of Justinian

| group14 = Continuing Medical Education (CME) Programs on Plague of Justinian | list14 = CME Programs on Plague of Justinian

| group15 = International Resources on Plague of Justinian | list15 = Plague of Justinian en EspanolPlague of Justinian en Francais

| group16 = Business Resources on Plague of Justinian | list16 = Plague of Justinian in the MarketplacePatents on Plague of Justinian

| group17 = Informatics Resources on Plague of Justinian | list17 = List of terms related to Plague of Justinian


}}

de:Justinianische Pest


Linked-in.jpg