In personality psychology, personality refers to enduring patterns of cognition, emotion, and behavior that are activated in particular circumstances and often affect social adaptation. In psychiatry and clinical psychology, personality pathology is characterized by adaptive inflexibility, vicious cycles of maladaptive behavior, and emotional instability under stress. In the United States and elsewhere, personality disorders are diagnosed categorically on Axis II of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association.
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