Parkinsonism differential diagnosis

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]

Differentiating Parkinsonism from other Diseases

If PD has been excluded, the differential diagnosis or list of potential causes for this syndrome includes:


  1. Tse W, Cersosimo MG, Gracies JM; et al. (2004). "Movement disorders and AIDS: a review". Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 10 (6): 323–34. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2004.03.001. PMID 15261874.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4
  3. Maltête D, Guyant-Maréchal L, Mihout B, Hannequin D (2006). "Movement disorders and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a review". Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 12 (2): 65–71. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2005.10.004. PMID 16364674.
  4. Watanabe Y, Himeda T, Araki T (2005). "Mechanisms of MPTP toxicity and their implications for therapy of Parkinson's disease" (PDF). Med. Sci. Monit. 11 (1): RA17–23. PMID 15614202.
  5. Wenning GK, Geser F (2003). "Multiple system atrophy". Rev. Neurol. (Paris). 159 (5 Pt 2): 3S31–8. PMID 12773886.
  6. Uc EY, Rodnitzky RL (2003). "Childhood dystonia". Seminars in pediatric neurology. 10 (1): 52–61. doi:10.1016/S1071-9091(02)00010-4. PMID 12785748.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 DeLong MR, Juncos JL (2004). Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (16th ed. ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. p. 2414. ISBN 0-07-140235-7.
  8. Dinis-Oliveira RJ, Remião F, Carmo H; et al. (2006). "Paraquat exposure as an etiological factor of Parkinson's disease". Neurotoxicology. 27 (6): 1110–22. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2006.05.012. PMID 16815551.
  9. Thanvi B, Lo N, Robinson T (2005). "Vascular Parkinsonism--an important cause of parkinsonism in older people" (PDF). Age and ageing. 34 (2): 114–9. doi:10.1093/ageing/afi025. PMID 15713855.
  10. Członkowska A, Tarnacka B, Möller JC; et al. (2007). "Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale - a proposal for the neurological scoring of Wilson's disease patients". Neurol. Neurochir. Pol. 41 (1): 1–12. PMID 17330175.

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