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Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (deadenylation nuclease)
File:PBB Protein PARN image.jpg
PDB rendering based on 1whv.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: Template:Homologene2PDBe PDBe, Template:Homologene2uniprot RCSB
Symbols PARN ; DAN
External IDs Template:OMIM5 Template:MGI HomoloGene31098
RNA expression pattern
File:PBB GE PARN 203905 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Template:GNF Ortholog box
Species Human Mouse
Entrez n/a n/a
Ensembl n/a n/a
UniProt n/a n/a
RefSeq (mRNA) n/a n/a
RefSeq (protein) n/a n/a
Location (UCSC) n/a n/a
PubMed search n/a n/a

Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (deadenylation nuclease), also known as PARN, is a human gene.[1]

Exonucleolytic degradation of the poly(A) tail is often the first step in the decay of eukaryotic mRNAs. The amino acid sequence of poly(A)-specific ribonuclease shows homology to the RNase D family of 3'-exonucleases. The protein appears to be localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It is not stably associated with polysomes or ribosomal subunits.[1]


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Entrez Gene: PARN poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (deadenylation nuclease)".

Further reading

  • Körner CG, Wahle E (1997). "Poly(A) tail shortening by a mammalian poly(A)-specific 3'-exoribonuclease". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (16): 10448–56. PMID 9099687.
  • Körner CG, Wormington M, Muckenthaler M; et al. (1998). "The deadenylating nuclease (DAN) is involved in poly(A) tail removal during the meiotic maturation of Xenopus oocytes". EMBO J. 17 (18): 5427–37. doi:10.1093/emboj/17.18.5427. PMID 9736620.
  • Buiting K, Körner C, Ulrich B; et al. (2000). "The human gene for the poly(A)-specific ribonuclease (PARN) maps to 16p13 and has a truncated copy in the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region on 15q11-->q13". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 87 (1–2): 125–31. PMID 10640832.
  • Dehlin E, Wormington M, Körner CG, Wahle E (2000). "Cap-dependent deadenylation of mRNA". EMBO J. 19 (5): 1079–86. doi:10.1093/emboj/19.5.1079. PMID 10698948.
  • Martinez J, Ren YG, Thuresson AC; et al. (2000). "A 54-kDa fragment of the Poly(A)-specific ribonuclease is an oligomeric, processive, and cap-interacting Poly(A)-specific 3' exonuclease". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (31): 24222–30. doi:10.1074/jbc.M001705200. PMID 10801819.
  • Gao M, Fritz DT, Ford LP, Wilusz J (2000). "Interaction between a poly(A)-specific ribonuclease and the 5' cap influences mRNA deadenylation rates in vitro". Mol. Cell. 5 (3): 479–88. PMID 10882133.
  • Gao M, Wilusz CJ, Peltz SW, Wilusz J (2001). "A novel mRNA-decapping activity in HeLa cytoplasmic extracts is regulated by AU-rich elements". EMBO J. 20 (5): 1134–43. doi:10.1093/emboj/20.5.1134. PMID 11230136.
  • Martînez J, Ren YG, Nilsson P; et al. (2001). "The mRNA cap structure stimulates rate of poly(A) removal and amplifies processivity of degradation". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (30): 27923–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M102270200. PMID 11359775.
  • Copeland PR, Wormington M (2001). "The mechanism and regulation of deadenylation: identification and characterization of Xenopus PARN". RNA. 7 (6): 875–86. PMID 11424938.
  • Chen CY, Gherzi R, Ong SE; et al. (2002). "AU binding proteins recruit the exosome to degrade ARE-containing mRNAs". Cell. 107 (4): 451–64. PMID 11719186.
  • Ren YG, Martínez J, Virtanen A (2002). "Identification of the active site of poly(A)-specific ribonuclease by site-directed mutagenesis and Fe(2+)-mediated cleavage". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (8): 5982–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111515200. PMID 11742007.
  • Andersen JS, Lyon CE, Fox AH; et al. (2002). "Directed proteomic analysis of the human nucleolus". Curr. Biol. 12 (1): 1–11. PMID 11790298.
  • Scherl A, Couté Y, Déon C; et al. (2003). "Functional proteomic analysis of human nucleolus". Mol. Biol. Cell. 13 (11): 4100–9. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-05-0271. PMID 12429849.
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH; et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.
  • Lai WS, Kennington EA, Blackshear PJ (2003). "Tristetraprolin and its family members can promote the cell-free deadenylation of AU-rich element-containing mRNAs by poly(A) ribonuclease". Mol. Cell. Biol. 23 (11): 3798–812. PMID 12748283.
  • Lejeune F, Li X, Maquat LE (2003). "Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in mammalian cells involves decapping, deadenylating, and exonucleolytic activities". Mol. Cell. 12 (3): 675–87. PMID 14527413.
  • Ota T, Suzuki Y, Nishikawa T; et al. (2004). "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs". Nat. Genet. 36 (1): 40–5. doi:10.1038/ng1285. PMID 14702039.
  • Gherzi R, Lee KY, Briata P; et al. (2004). "A KH domain RNA binding protein, KSRP, promotes ARE-directed mRNA turnover by recruiting the degradation machinery". Mol. Cell. 14 (5): 571–83. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2004.05.002. PMID 15175153.
  • Lehner B, Sanderson CM (2004). "A protein interaction framework for human mRNA degradation". Genome Res. 14 (7): 1315–23. doi:10.1101/gr.2122004. PMID 15231747.
  • Ren YG, Kirsebom LA, Virtanen A (2005). "Coordination of divalent metal ions in the active site of poly(A)-specific ribonuclease". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (47): 48702–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.M403858200. PMID 15358788.

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