P2Y receptors are a family of purinergic receptors, G protein-coupled receptors stimulated by nucleotides such as ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP and UDP-glucose. To date, 12 P2Y receptors have been cloned in humans: P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y5, P2Y6, P2Y8, P2Y9 (present in NCBI as GPR23), P2Y10, P2Y11, P2Y12, P2Y13 and P2Y14.
P2Y receptors are present in almost all human tissues where they exert various biological functions based on their G-protein coupling.
The biological effects of P2Y receptor activation depends on how they couple to downstream signalling pathways, either via Gi, Gq/11 or Gs G proteins. Human P2Y receptors have the following G protein coupling:
|P2RY4||Gi and Gq/11||UTP|
|P2RY9 or GPR23||Lysophosphatidic acid|
|P2RY11||Gs and Gq/11||ATP|
The gaps in P2Y receptor numbering is due to that several receptors (P2Y3, P2Y5, P2Y7, P2Y8, P2Y9, P2Y10) were thought to be P2Y receptors when they were cloned, when in fact they are not.
P2Y3 is the avian homologue of the mammalian P2Y6.
- P2Y11 is a regulator of immune response, and a common polymorphism caried by almost 20% of North European caucasians give increased risk of myocardial infarction, making P2Y11 an interesting drug target candidate for treatment of myocardial infarction.
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- Amisten S, Melander O, Wihlborg AK, Berglund G, Erlinge D (2007). "Increased risk of acute myocardial infarction and elevated levels of C-reactive protein in carriers of the Thr-87 variant of the ATP receptor P2Y11". Eur. Heart J. 28 (1): 13–8. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehl410. PMID 17135283.
- Herbert JM, Savi P (2003). "P2Y12, a new platelet ADP receptor, target of clopidogrel". Seminars in vascular medicine. 3 (2): 113–22. doi:10.1055/s-2003-40669. PMID 15199474.
- IUPHAR GPCR Database - P2Y receptors
- Purinergic+P2+receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
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