Nutritional screening and assessment resident survival guide

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor(s)-in-Chief: Hanan E. Elkalawy, MD[2]

Synonyms and Keywords:

Overview

Nutrition plays a pivotal role in life and in medicine. Acute and chronic diseases in most organ systems have pronounced effects on food intake and metabolism with increased catabolism, which lead to nutrition-related conditions associated with increased morbidity and eventually death. At the other end of the spectrum, diet is a major determinant of future health, i.e. the absence or postponement of disorders like cardio-vascular disease, diabetes, cancer and cognitive disease.[1] Malnutrition can be defined as “a state resulting from lack of intake or uptake of nutrition that leads to altered body composition (decreased fat free mass) and body cell mass leading to diminished physical and mental function and impaired clinical outcome from disease” .[2]

Causes

Life Threatening Causes

Life-threatening causes include conditions that may result in death or permanent disability within 24 hours if left untreated.

Common Causes

Diagnosis

Shown below is an algorithm summarizing the diagnosis of [[Malnutrition]] according the the [WHO] guidelines.[3]

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
malnutrtion
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
BMI <18.5 kg/m2
 
Weight loss (involuntary) >10% indefinite of time, or >5% over the last 3 months combined with either

BMI <20 kg/m2 if <70 years of age, or <22 kg/m2 if ≥70 years of age or

FFMI <15 and 17 kg/m2 in women and men, respectively.

Treatment

Shown below is an algorithm summarizing the treatment of [[disease name]] according the the [...] guidelines.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Do's

  • The content in this section is in bullet points.

Don'ts

  • The content in this section is in bullet points.

References

  1. Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G (1975). "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes". Biochem Pharmacol. 24 (17): 1639–41. PMID https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31679-8 Check |pmid= value (help).
  2. Cederholm T, Barazzoni R, Austin P, Ballmer P, Biolo G, Bischoff SC; et al. (2017). "ESPEN guidelines on definitions and terminology of clinical nutrition". Clin Nutr. 36 (1): 49–64. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2016.09.004. PMID 27642056.
  3. Schmoldt A, Benthe HF, Haberland G (1975). "Digitoxin metabolism by rat liver microsomes". Biochem Pharmacol. 24 (17): 1639–41. PMID https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2016.09.004 Check |pmid= value (help).


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