Nucleus accumbens

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Brain: Nucleus accumbens
Gray744.png
Nucleus accumbens not labeled, but labels are provided for caudate, putamen, and septum pellucidum.
Medial surface. (Nucleus accumbens is very roughly in the area of the 34.)
Latin nucleus accumbens septi
NeuroNames hier-259
MeSH Nucleus+Accumbens
Dorlands/Elsevier n_11/12580142

The nucleus accumbens (NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus leaning against the septum), is a collection of neurons located where the head of the caudate and the anterior portion of the putamen meet just lateral to the septum pellucidum.
The nucleus accumbens can be divided into two structures -- the nucleus accumbens core and the nucleus accumbens shell. These structures have different morphology and function.
The nucleus accumbens and the olfactory tubercle collectively form the ventral striatum, which is part of the basal ganglia [1].

This nucleus is thought to play an important role in reward, laughter, pleasure, and addiction.

Cell types

The principal neuronal cell type found in the nucleus accumbens is the medium spiny neuron. The neurotransmitter produced by these neurons is gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), one of the main inhibitory neurotransmitters of the central nervous system. These neurons are also the main projection or output neurons of the nucleus accumbens.

While 95% of the neurons in the nucleus accumbens are medium spiny GABA-ergic projection neurons, other neuronal types are also found such as large aspiny cholinergic interneurons.

Output and input

The output neurons of the nucleus accumbens send axon projections to the ventral analog of the globus pallidus, known as the ventral pallidum (VP). The VP, in turn, projects to the mediodorsal (MD) nucleus of the dorsal thalamus, which projects to the prefrontal cortex. Other efferents from the nucleus accumbens include connections with the substantia nigra and pontine reticular formation. Major inputs to the nucleus accumbens include prefrontal association cortices, basolateral amygdala, and dopaminergic neurons located in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which connect via the mesolimbic pathway. Thus the nucleus accumbens is often described as one part of a cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop.

Dopaminergic input from the VTA is thought to modulate the activity of neurons within the nucleus accumbens. These terminals are also the site of action of highly-addictive drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine, which cause a manifold increase in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. In addition to cocaine and amphetamine, almost every drug abused by humans has been shown to increase dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens.

Research

In the 1950s, Olds and Milner implanted electrodes into the septal area of the rat and found that the rat chose to press a lever which stimulated it. It continued to prefer this even over stopping to eat or drink. This suggests that the area is the 'pleasure center' of the brain.[2]

Although the nucleus accumbens has traditionally been studied for its role in addiction, it plays an equal role in processing many rewards such as food, sex, and video games. A recent study found that it is involved in the regulation of emotions induced by music [3] , perhaps consequent to its role in mediating dopamine release. It also has roles in timing, and has long been considered to be the limbic-motor interface (Mogensen).

References

  1. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2007/MB_cgi?mode=&term=Nucleus+Accumbens
  2. Olds J, Milner P (1954). "Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain". J Comp Physiol Psychol. 47 (6): 419–27. PMID 13233369. article
  3. Menon, Vinod & Levitin, Daniel J. (2005) The rewards of music listening: Response and physiological connectivity of themesolimbic system." NeuroImage 28(1), pp. 175-184

External links


de:Nucleus accumbens he:גרעין האקומבנס nl:Nucleus accumbens sv:Accumbenskärnan


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